For other uses, see Love (disambiguation).

Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and positively experienced, ranging from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure.[1][2] An example of this range of meanings is that the love of a mother differs from the love of a spouse differs from the love of food. Most commonly, love refers to a feeling of strong attraction and emotional attachment.[3] Love can also be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion, and affection, as “the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another”.[4] It may also describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one’s self or animals.[5]

Ancient Greek philosophers identified four forms of love: essentially, familial love (in Greek, storge), friendly love (philia), romantic love (eros), and divine love (agape). Modern authors have distinguished further varieties of love: unrequited love, infatuated love, self-love, and courtly love. Non-Western traditions have also distinguished variants or symbioses of these states.[6][7] Love has additional religious or spiritual meaning. This diversity of uses and meanings combined with the complexity of the feelings involved makes love unusually difficult to consistently define, compared to other emotional states.

Love in its various forms acts as a major facilitator of interpersonal relationships and, owing to its central psychological importance, is one of the most common themes in the creative arts.[8]

Love has been postulated to be a function to keep human beings together against menaces and to facilitate the continuation of the species.[9]


  • 1 Definitions
  • 2 Impersonal love
  • 3 Interpersonal love
    • 3.1 Biological basis
    • 3.2 Psychological basis
    • 3.3 Evolutionary basis
    • 3.4 Comparison of scientific models
  • 4 Cultural views
    • 4.1 Ancient Greek
    • 4.2 Ancient Roman (Latin)
    • 4.3 Chinese and other Sinic cultures
    • 4.4 Japanese
    • 4.5 Indian
    • 4.6 Persian
  • 5 Religious views
    • 5.1 Abrahamic religions
      • 5.1.1 Christianity
      • 5.1.2 Judaism
      • 5.1.3 Islam
      • 5.1.4 Bahá’í Faith
    • 5.2 Indian religions
      • 5.2.1 Buddhism
      • 5.2.2 Hinduism
  • 6 Political views
    • 6.1 Free love
  • 7 Philosophical views
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 Sources
  • 11 Further reading
  • 12 External links


Romeo and Juliet parting on the balcony in Act III.

The word “love” can have a variety of related but distinct meanings in different contexts. Many other languages use multiple words to express some of the different concepts that in English are denoted as “love”; one example is the plurality of Greek words for “love” which includes agape and eros.[10] Cultural differences in conceptualizing love thus doubly impede the establishment of a universal definition.[11]

Although the nature or essence of love is a subject of frequent debate, different aspects of the word can be clarified by determining what isn’t love (antonyms of “love”). Love as a general expression of positive sentiment (a stronger form of like) is commonly contrasted with hate (or neutral apathy). As a less sexual and more emotionally intimate form of romantic attachment, love is commonly contrasted with lust. As an interpersonal relationship with romantic overtones, love is sometimes contrasted with friendship, although the word love is often applied to close friendships. (Further possible ambiguities come with usages “girlfriend”, “boyfriend”, “just good friends”).

Fraternal love (Prehispanic sculpture from 250–900 AD, of Huastec origin). Museum of Anthropology in Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico

Abstractly discussed love usually refers to an experience one person feels for another. Love often involves caring for, or identifying with, a person or thing (cf. vulnerability and care theory of love), including oneself (cf. narcissism). In addition to cross-cultural differences in understanding love, ideas about love have also changed greatly over time. Some historians date modern conceptions of romantic love to courtly Europe during or after the Middle Ages, although the prior existence of romantic attachments is attested by ancient love poetry.[12]

The complex and abstract nature of love often reduces discourse of love to a thought-terminating cliché. Several common proverbs regard love, from Virgil’s “Love conquers all” to The Beatles’ “All You Need Is Love”. St. Thomas Aquinas, following Aristotle, defines love as “to will the good of another.”[13] Bertrand Russell describes love as a condition of “absolute value,” as opposed to relative value.[14] Philosopher Gottfried Leibniz said that love is “to be delighted by the happiness of another.”[15] Meher Baba stated that in love there is a “feeling of unity” and an “active appreciation of the intrinsic worth of the object of love.”[16] Biologist Jeremy Griffith defines love as “unconditional selflessness”.[17]

Impersonal love

People can be said to love an object, principle, or goal to which they are deeply committed and greatly value. For example, compassionate outreach and volunteer workers’ “love” of their cause may sometimes be born not of interpersonal love but impersonal love, altruism, and strong spiritual or political convictions.[18] People can also “love” material objects, animals, or activities if they invest themselves in bonding or otherwise identifying with those things. If sexual passion is also involved, then this feeling is called paraphilia.[19] A common principle that people say they love is life itself.

Interpersonal love

Interpersonal love refers to love between human beings. It is a much more potent sentiment than a simple liking for a person. Unrequited love refers to those feelings of love that are not reciprocated. Interpersonal love is most closely associated with interpersonal relationships.[18] Such love might exist between family members, friends, and couples. There are also a number of psychological disorders related to love, such as erotomania.

Pair of Lovers. 1480–1485

Throughout history, philosophy and religion have done the most speculation on the phenomenon of love. In the 20th century, the science of psychology has written a great deal on the subject. In recent years, the sciences of psychology, anthropology, neuroscience, and biology have added to the understanding the concept of love.

Biological basis

Main article: Biological basis of love

Biological models of sex tend to view love as a mammalian drive, much like hunger or thirst.[20] Helen Fisher, an anthropologist and human behavior researcher, divides the experience of love into three partly overlapping stages: lust, attraction, and attachment. Lust is the feeling of sexual desire; romantic attraction determines what partners mates find attractive and pursue, conserving time and energy by choosing; and attachment involves sharing a home, parental duties, mutual defense, and in humans involves feelings of safety and security.[21] Three distinct neural circuitries, including neurotransmitters, and three behavioral patterns, are associated with these three romantic styles.[21]

Lust is the initial passionate sexual desire that promotes mating, and involves the increased release of chemicals such as testosterone and estrogen. These effects rarely last more than a few weeks or months. Attraction is the more individualized and romantic desire for a specific candidate for mating, which develops out of lust as commitment to an individual mate forms. Recent studies in neuroscience have indicated that as people fall in love, the brain consistently releases a certain set of chemicals, including the neurotransmitter hormones, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, the same compounds released by amphetamine, stimulating the brain’s pleasure center and leading to side effects such as increased heart rate, loss of appetite and sleep, and an intense feeling of excitement. Research has indicated that this stage generally lasts from one and a half to three years.[22]

Since the lust and attraction stages are both considered temporary, a third stage is needed to account for long-term relationships. Attachment is the bonding that promotes relationships lasting for many years and even decades. Attachment is generally based on commitments such as marriage and children, or on mutual friendship based on things like shared interests. It has been linked to higher levels of the chemicals oxytocin and vasopressin to a greater degree than short-term relationships have.[22] Enzo Emanuele and coworkers reported the protein molecule known as the nerve growth factor (NGF) has high levels when people first fall in love, but these return to previous levels after one year.[23]

Psychological basis

Further information: Human bonding

Grandmother and grandchild in Sri Lanka

Psychology depicts love as a cognitive and social phenomenon. Psychologist Robert Sternberg formulated a triangular theory of love and argued that love has three different components: intimacy, commitment, and passion. Intimacy is a form in which two people share confidences and various details of their personal lives, and is usually shown in friendships and romantic love affairs. Commitment, on the other hand, is the expectation that the relationship is permanent. The last form of love is sexual attraction and passion. Passionate love is shown in infatuation as well as romantic love. All forms of love are viewed as varying combinations of these three components. Non-love does not include any of these components. Liking only includes intimacy. Infatuated love only includes passion. Empty love only includes commitment. Romantic love includes both intimacy and passion. Companionate love includes intimacy and commitment. Fatuous love includes passion and commitment. Lastly, consummate love includes all three.[24] American psychologist Zick Rubin sought to define love by psychometrics in the 1970s. His work states that three factors constitute love: attachment, caring, and intimacy.[25][26]

Following developments in electrical theories such as Coulomb’s law, which showed that positive and negative charges attract, analogs in human life were developed, such as “opposites attract”. Over the last century, research on the nature of human mating has generally found this not to be true when it comes to character and personality—people tend to like people similar to themselves. However, in a few unusual and specific domains, such as immune systems, it seems that humans prefer others who are unlike themselves (e.g., with an orthogonal immune system), since this will lead to a baby that has the best of both worlds.[27] In recent years, various human bonding theories have been developed, described in terms of attachments, ties, bonds, and affinities. Some Western authorities disaggregate into two main components, the altruistic and the narcissistic. This view is represented in the works of Scott Peck, whose work in the field of applied psychology explored the definitions of love and evil. Peck maintains that love is a combination of the “concern for the spiritual growth of another,” and simple narcissism.[28] In combination, love is an activity, not simply a feeling.


  • Bonding
  • Courtship
  • Dating
  • Engagement
  • Mating
  • Meet market
  • Romance
  • Singles event
  • Wedding


  • Breakup
  • Separation
  • Annulment
  • Divorce
  • Widowhood

Emotions and feelings

  • Affinity
  • Attachment
  • Intimacy
  • Jealousy
  • Limerence
  • Love
    • Platonic
    • unconditional
  • Passion
  • Sexuality


  • Bride price
    • dower
    • dowry
    • service
  • Hypergamy
  • Infidelity
  • Sexual activity
  • Transgression
  • Repression


  • Child
  • Dating
  • Domestic
  • Elderly
  • Narcissistic parent
  • Power and control
  • v
  • t
  • e

Psychologist Erich Fromm maintained in his book The Art of Loving that love is not merely a feeling but is also actions, and that in fact, the “feeling” of love is superficial in comparison to one’s commitment to love via a series of loving actions over time.[18] In this sense, Fromm held that love is ultimately not a feeling at all, but rather is a commitment to, and adherence to, loving actions towards another, oneself, or many others, over a sustained duration.[18] Fromm also described love as a conscious choice that in its early stages might originate as an involuntary feeling, but which then later no longer depends on those feelings, but rather depends only on conscious commitment.[18]

Evolutionary basis

Wall of Love in Paris: “I love you” in 250 languages

Evolutionary psychology has attempted to provide various reasons for love as a survival tool. Humans are dependent on parental help for a large portion of their lifespans compared to other mammals. Love has therefore been seen as a mechanism to promote parental support of children for this extended time period. Furthermore, researchers as early as Charles Darwin himself identified unique features of human love compared to other mammals and credit love as a major factor for creating social support systems that enabled the development and expansion of the human species.[29] Another factor may be that sexually transmitted diseases can cause, among other effects, permanently reduced fertility, injury to the fetus, and increase complications during childbirth. This would favor monogamous relationships over polygamy.[30]

Comparison of scientific models

Biological models of love tend to see it as a mammalian drive, similar to hunger or thirst.[20] Psychology sees love as more of a social and cultural phenomenon. Certainly love is influenced by hormones (such as oxytocin), neurotrophins (such as NGF), and pheromones, and how people think and behave in love is influenced by their conceptions of love. The conventional view in biology is that there are two major drives in love: sexual attraction and attachment. Attachment between adults is presumed to work on the same principles that lead an infant to become attached to its mother. The traditional psychological view sees love as being a combination of companionate love and passionate love. Passionate love is intense longing, and is often accompanied by physiological arousal (shortness of breath, rapid heart rate); companionate love is affection and a feeling of intimacy not accompanied by physiological arousal.

Cultural views

Ancient Greek

See also: Greek words for love

Roman copy of a Greek sculpture by Lysippus depicting Eros, the Greek personification of romantic love

Greek distinguishes several different senses in which the word “love” is used. Ancient Greeks identified four forms of love: kinship or familiarity (in Greek, storge), friendship and/or platonic desire (philia), sexual and/or romantic desire (eros), and self-emptying or divine love (agape).[31][32] Modern authors have distinguished further varieties of romantic love.[33] However, with Greek (as with many other languages), it has been historically difficult to separate the meanings of these words totally. At the same time, the Ancient Greek text of the Bible has examples of the verb agapo having the same meaning as phileo.

Agape (ἀγάπη agápē) means love in modern-day Greek. The term s’agapo means I love you in Greek. The word agapo is the verb I love. It generally refers to a “pure,” ideal type of love, rather than the physical attraction suggested by eros. However, there are some examples of agape used to mean the same as eros. It has also been translated as “love of the soul.”[34]

Eros (ἔρως érōs) (from the Greek deity Eros) is passionate love, with sensual desire and longing. The Greek word erota means in love. Plato refined his own definition. Although eros is initially felt for a person, with contemplation it becomes an appreciation of the beauty within that person, or even becomes appreciation of beauty itself. Eros helps the soul recall knowledge of beauty and contributes to an understanding of spiritual truth. Lovers and philosophers are all inspired to seek truth by eros. Some translations list it as “love of the body”.[34]

Philia (φιλία philía), a dispassionate virtuous love, was a concept addressed and developed by Aristotle in his Nicomachean Ethics Book VIII.[35] It includes loyalty to friends, family, and community, and requires virtue, equality, and familiarity. Philia is motivated by practical reasons; one or both of the parties benefit from the relationship. It can also mean “love of the mind.”

Storge (στοργή storgē) is natural affection, like that felt by parents for offspring.

Xenia (ξενία xenía), hospitality, was an extremely important practice in ancient Greece. It was an almost ritualized friendship formed between a host and his guest, who could previously have been strangers. The host fed and provided quarters for the guest, who was expected to repay only with gratitude. The importance of this can be seen throughout Greek mythology—in particular, Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey.

Ancient Roman (Latin)

The Latin language has several different verbs corresponding to the English word “love.” amō is the basic verb meaning I love, with the infinitive amare (“to love”) as it still is in Italian today. The Romans used it both in an affectionate sense as well as in a romantic or sexual sense. From this verb come amans—a lover, amator, “professional lover,” often with the accessory notion of lechery—and amica, “girlfriend” in the English sense, often being applied euphemistically to a prostitute. The corresponding noun is amor (the significance of this term for the Romans is well illustrated in the fact, that the name of the City, Rome—in Latin: Roma—can be viewed as an anagram for amor, which was used as the secret name of the City in wide circles in ancient times),[36] which is also used in the plural form to indicate love affairs or sexual adventures. This same root also produces amicus—”friend”—and amicitia, “friendship” (often based to mutual advantage, and corresponding sometimes more closely to “indebtedness” or “influence”). Cicero wrote a treatise called On Friendship (de Amicitia), which discusses the notion at some length. Ovid wrote a guide to dating called Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love), which addresses, in depth, everything from extramarital affairs to overprotective parents.

Latin sometimes uses amāre where English would simply say to like. This notion, however, is much more generally expressed in Latin by the terms placere or delectāre, which are used more colloquially, the latter used frequently in the love poetry of Catullus. Diligere often has the notion “to be affectionate for,” “to esteem,” and rarely if ever is used for romantic love. This word would be appropriate to describe the friendship of two men. The corresponding noun diligentia, however, has the meaning of “diligence” or “carefulness,” and has little semantic overlap with the verb. Observare is a synonym for diligere; despite the cognate with English, this verb and its corresponding noun, observantia, often denote “esteem” or “affection.” Caritas is used in Latin translations of the Christian Bible to mean “charitable love”; this meaning, however, is not found in Classical pagan Roman literature. As it arises from a conflation with a Greek word, there is no corresponding verb.

Chinese and other Sinic cultures

“Ai,” the traditional Chinese character for love (愛) contains a heart (心) in the middle.

Two philosophical underpinnings of love exist in the Chinese tradition, one from Confucianism which emphasized actions and duty while the other came from Mohism which championed a universal love. A core concept to Confucianism is Ren (“benevolent love”, 仁), which focuses on duty, action and attitude in a relationship rather than love itself. In Confucianism, one displays benevolent love by performing actions such as filial piety from children, kindness from parent, loyalty to the king and so forth.

The concept of Ai (愛) was developed by the Chinese philosopher Mozi in the 4th century BC in reaction to Confucianism’s benevolent love. Mozi tried to replace what he considered to be the long-entrenched Chinese over-attachment to family and clan structures with the concept of “universal love” (jiān’ài, 兼愛). In this, he argued directly against Confucians who believed that it was natural and correct for people to care about different people in different degrees. Mozi, by contrast, believed people in principle should care for all people equally. Mohism stressed that rather than adopting different attitudes towards different people, love should be unconditional and offered to everyone without regard to reciprocation, not just to friends, family and other Confucian relations. Later in Chinese Buddhism, the term Ai (愛) was adopted to refer to a passionate caring love and was considered a fundamental desire. In Buddhism, Ai was seen as capable of being either selfish or selfless, the latter being a key element towards enlightenment.

In contemporary Chinese, Ai (愛) is often used as the equivalent of the Western concept of love. Ai is used as both a verb (e.g. wo ai ni 我愛你, or “I love you”) and a noun (such as aiqing 愛情, or “romantic love”). However, due to the influence of Confucian Ren, the phrase ‘Wo ai ni’ (I love you) carries with it a very specific sense of responsibility, commitment and loyalty. Instead of frequently saying “I love you” as in some Western societies, the Chinese are more likely to express feelings of affection in a more casual way. Consequently, “I like you” (Wo xihuan ni, 我喜欢你) is a more common way of expressing affection in Chinese; it is more playful and less serious.[37] This is also true in Japanese (suki da, 好きだ). The Chinese are also more likely to say “I love you” in English or other foreign languages than they would in their mother tongue.


Ohatsu and Tokubei, characters of Sonezaki Shinjū

The Japanese language uses three words to convey the English equivalent of “love”. Because “love” covers a wide range of emotions and behavioral phenomena, there are nuances distinguishing the three terms.[38][39] The term ai (愛), which is often associated with maternal love[38] or selfless love,[39] originally referred to beauty and was often used in religious context. Following the Meiji Restoration 1868, the term became associated with “love” in order to translate Western literature. Prior to Western influence, the term koi (恋) generally represented romantic love, and was often the subject of the popular Man’yōshū Japanese poetry collection.[38] Koi describes a longing for a member of the opposite sex and is typical interpreted as selfish and wanting.[39] The term’s origins come from the concept of lonely solitude as a result of separation from a loved one. Though modern usage of koi focuses on sexual love and infatuation, the Manyō used the term to cover a wider range of situations, including tenderness, benevolence, and material desire.[38] The third term, ren’ai (恋愛), is a more modern construction that combines the kanji characters for both ai and koi, though its usage more closely resembles that of koi in the form of romantic love.[38][39]


Hindu god Krishna and his consort Radha making love

Indian king enjoying Kamasutra position

Kama in Indian literature means “desire, wish or longing”.[40] In contemporary literature, kama refers usually to sexual desire.[41] However, the term also refers to any sensory enjoyment, emotional attraction and aesthetic pleasure such as from arts, dance, music, painting, sculpture and nature.[42][43]

The concept kama is found in some of the earliest known verses in Vedas. For example, Book 10 of Rig Veda describes the creation of the universe from nothing by the great heat. There in hymn 129, it states:

कामस्तदग्रे समवर्तताधि मनसो रेतः परथमं यदासीत |
सतो बन्धुमसति निरविन्दन हर्दि परतीष्याकवयो मनीषा ||[44]

Thereafter rose Desire in the beginning, Desire the primal seed and germ of Spirit,
Sages who searched with their heart’s thought discovered the existent’s kinship in the non-existent.

— Rig Veda, ~ 15th Century BC[45]


The children of Adam are limbs of one body
Having been created of one essence.
When the calamity of time afflicts one limb
The other limbs cannot remain at rest.
If you have no sympathy for the troubles of others
You are not worthy to be called by the name of “man”.

Sa’di, Gulistan   

Rumi, Hafiz and Sa’di are icons of the passion and love that the Persian culture and language present.[citation needed] The Persian word for love is Ishq, which is derived from Arabic language,[46] however it is considered by most to be too stalwart a term for interpersonal love and is more commonly substituted for “doost dashtan” (“liking”).[citation needed] In the Persian culture, everything is encompassed by love and all is for love, starting from loving friends and family, husbands and wives, and eventually reaching the divine love that is the ultimate goal in life.[citation needed]

Religious views

Main article: Religious views on love

Abrahamic religions

Robert Indiana’s 1977 Love sculpture spelling ahava.


The Christian understanding is that love comes from God. The love of man and woman—eros in Greek—and the unselfish love of others (agape), are often contrasted as “descending” and “ascending” love, respectively, but are ultimately the same thing.[47]

There are several Greek words for “love” that are regularly referred to in Christian circles.

  • Agape: In the New Testament, agapē is charitable, selfless, altruistic, and unconditional. It is parental love, seen as creating goodness in the world; it is the way God is seen to love humanity, and it is seen as the kind of love that Christians aspire to have for one another.[34]
  • Phileo: Also used in the New Testament, phileo is a human response to something that is found to be delightful. Also known as “brotherly love.”
  • Two other words for love in the Greek language, eros (sexual love) and storge (child-to-parent love), were never used in the New Testament.[34]

Christians believe that to Love God with all your heart, mind, and strength and Love your neighbor as yourself are the two most important things in life (the greatest commandment of the Jewish Torah, according to Jesus; cf. Gospel of Mark chapter 12, verses 28–34). Saint Augustine summarized this when he wrote “Love God, and do as thou wilt.”

Sacred and Profane Love (1602–03) by Giovanni Baglione. Intended as an attack on his hated enemy the artist Caravaggio, it shows a boy (hinting at Caravaggio’s homosexuality) on one side, a devil with Caravaggio’s face on the other, and between an angel representing pure, meaning non-erotic, love.[48]

The Apostle Paul glorified love as the most important virtue of all. Describing love in the famous poetic interpretation in 1 Corinthians, he wrote, “Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, and always perseveres.” (1 Cor. 13:4–7, NIV)

The Apostle John wrote, “For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him.” (John 3:16–17, NIV) John also wrote, “Dear friends, let us love one another for love comes from God. Everyone who loves has been born of God and knows God. Whoever does not love does not know God, because God is love.” (1 John 4:7–8, NIV)

Saint Augustine says that one must be able to decipher the difference between love and lust. Lust, according to Saint Augustine, is an overindulgence, but to love and be loved is what he has sought for his entire life. He even says, “I was in love with love.” Finally, he does fall in love and is loved back, by God. Saint Augustine says the only one who can love you truly and fully is God, because love with a human only allows for flaws such as “jealousy, suspicion, fear, anger, and contention.” According to Saint Augustine, to love God is “to attain the peace which is yours.” (Saint Augustine’s Confessions)

Augustine regards the duplex commandment of love in Matthew 22 as the heart of Christian faith and the interpretation of the Bible. After the review of Christian doctrine, Augustine treats the problem of love in terms of use and enjoyment until the end of Book I of De Doctrina Christiana (1.22.21-1.40.44;).[49]

Christian theologians see God as the source of love, which is mirrored in humans and their own loving relationships. Influential Christian theologian C.S. Lewis wrote a book called The Four Loves. Benedict XVI wrote his first encyclical on “God is love”. He said that a human being, created in the image of God, who is love, is able to practice love; to give himself to God and others (agape) and by receiving and experiencing God’s love in contemplation (eros). This life of love, according to him, is the life of the saints such as Teresa of Calcutta and the Blessed Virgin Mary and is the direction Christians take when they believe that God loves them.[47]

And so Pope Francis taught that “True love is both loving and letting oneself be loved..what is important in love is not our loving, but allowing ourselves to be loved by God.”[50] And so, in the analysis of a Catholic theologian, for Pope Francis, “the key to love…is not our activity. It is the activity of the greatest, and the source, of all the powers in the universe: God’s.”[51]

In Christianity the practical definition of love is best summarised by St. Thomas Aquinas, who defined love as “to will the good of another,” or to desire for another to succeed.[13] This is the explanation of the Christian need to love others, including their enemies. As Thomas Aquinas explains, Christian love is motivated by the need to see others succeed in life, to be good people.

Regarding love for enemies, Jesus is quoted in the Gospel of Matthew chapter five:

“You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ But I tell you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, that you may be children of your Father in heaven. He causes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. If you love those who love you, what reward will you get? Are not even the tax collectors doing that? And if you greet only your own people, what are you doing more than others? Do not even pagans do that? Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect.” – Matthew 5: 43-48

Tertullian wrote regarding love for enemies: “Our individual, extraordinary, and perfect goodness consists in loving our enemies. To love one’s friends is common practice, to love one’s enemies only among Christians.”[52]

See also: Jewish views on love

In Hebrew, אהבה (ahava) is the most commonly used term for both interpersonal love and love between God and God’s creations. Chesed, often translated as loving-kindness, is used to describe many forms of love between human beings.

The commandment to love other people is given in the Torah, which states, “Love your neighbor like yourself” (Leviticus 19:18). The Torah’s commandment to love God “with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5) is taken by the Mishnah (a central text of the Jewish oral law) to refer to good deeds, willingness to sacrifice one’s life rather than commit certain serious transgressions, willingness to sacrifice all of one’s possessions, and being grateful to the Lord despite adversity (tractate Berachoth 9:5). Rabbinic literature differs as to how this love can be developed, e.g., by contemplating divine deeds or witnessing the marvels of nature. As for love between marital partners, this is deemed an essential ingredient to life: “See life with the wife you love” (Ecclesiastes 9:9). The biblical book Song of Solomon is considered a romantically phrased metaphor of love between God and his people, but in its plain reading, reads like a love song. The 20th-century Rabbi Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler is frequently quoted as defining love from the Jewish point of view as “giving without expecting to take” (from his Michtav me-Eliyahu, Vol. 1).


Love encompasses the Islamic view of life as universal brotherhood that applies to all who hold faith. Amongst the 99 names of God (Allah), there is the name Al-Wadud, or “the Loving One,” which is found in Surah [Quran 11:90] as well as Surah [Quran 85:14]. God is also referenced at the beginning of every chapter in the Qur’an as Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim, or the “Most Compassionate” and the “Most Merciful”, indicating that nobody is more loving, compassionate and benevolent than God. The Qur’an refers to God as being “full of loving kindness.”

The Qur’an exhorts Muslim believers to treat all people, those who have not persecuted them, with birr or “deep kindness” as stated in Surah [Quran 6:8-9]. Birr is also used by the Qur’an in describing the love and kindness that children must show to their parents.

Ishq, or divine love, is the emphasis of Sufism in the Islamic tradition. Practitioners of Sufism believe that love is a projection of the essence of God to the universe. God desires to recognize beauty, and as if one looks at a mirror to see oneself, God “looks” at himself within the dynamics of nature. Since everything is a reflection of God, the school of Sufism practices to see the beauty inside the apparently ugly. Sufism is often referred to as the religion of love.[citation needed] God in Sufism is referred to in three main terms, which are the Lover, Loved, and Beloved, with the last of these terms being often seen in Sufi poetry. A common viewpoint of Sufism is that through love, humankind can get back to its inherent purity and grace. The saints of Sufism are infamous for being “drunk” due to their love of God; hence, the constant reference to wine in Sufi poetry and music.

Bahá’í Faith

In his Paris Talks, `Abdu’l-Bahá described four types of love: the love that flows from God to human beings; the love that flows from human beings to God; the love of God towards the Self or Identity of God; and the love of human beings for human beings.[53]

Indian religions


In Buddhism, Kāma is sensuous, sexual love. It is an obstacle on the path to enlightenment, since it is selfish. Karuṇā is compassion and mercy, which reduces the suffering of others. It is complementary to wisdom and is necessary for enlightenment. Adveṣa and mettā are benevolent love. This love is unconditional and requires considerable self-acceptance. This is quite different from ordinary love, which is usually about attachment and sex and which rarely occurs without self-interest. Instead, in Buddhism it refers to detachment and unselfish interest in others’ welfare.

The Bodhisattva ideal in Mahayana Buddhism involves the complete renunciation of oneself in order to take on the burden of a suffering world. The strongest motivation one has in order to take the path of the Bodhisattva is the idea of salvation within unselfish, altruistic love for all sentient beings.

Main articles: Kama and Kama Sutra

Kama (left) with Rati on a temple wall of Chennakesava Temple, Belur

In Hinduism, kāma is pleasurable, sexual love, personified by the god Kamadeva. For many Hindu schools, it is the third end (Kama) in life. Kamadeva is often pictured holding a bow of sugar cane and an arrow of flowers; he may ride upon a great parrot. He is usually accompanied by his consort Rati and his companion Vasanta, lord of the spring season. Stone images of Kamadeva and Rati can be seen on the door of the Chennakeshava temple at Belur, in Karnataka, India. Maara is another name for kāma.

In contrast to kāma, prema – or prem – refers to elevated love. Karuna is compassion and mercy, which impels one to help reduce the suffering of others. Bhakti is a Sanskrit term, meaning “loving devotion to the supreme God.” A person who practices bhakti is called a bhakta. Hindu writers, theologians, and philosophers have distinguished nine forms of bhakti, which can be found in the Bhagavata Purana and works by Tulsidas. The philosophical work Narada Bhakti Sutras, written by an unknown author (presumed to be Narada), distinguishes eleven forms of love.

In certain Vaishnava sects within Hinduism, attaining unadulterated, unconditional and incessant love for Godhead is considered the foremost goal of life. Gaudiya Vaishnavas who worship Krishna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the cause of all causes consider Love for Godhead (Prema) to act in two ways: sambhoga and vipralambha (union and separation)—two opposites .[54]

In the condition of separation, there is an acute yearning for being with the beloved and in the condition of union there is supreme happiness and nectarean. Gaudiya Vaishnavas consider that Krishna-prema (Love for Godhead) is not fire but that it still burns away one’s material desires. They consider that Kṛṣṇa-prema is not a weapon, but it still pierces the heart. It is not water, but it washes away everything—one’s pride, religious rules, and one’s shyness. Krishna-prema is considered to make one drown in the ocean of transcendental ecstasy and pleasure. The love of Radha, a cowherd girl, for Krishna is often cited as the supreme example of love for Godhead by Gaudiya Vaishnavas. Radha is considered to be the internal potency of Krishna, and is the supreme lover of Godhead. Her example of love is considered to be beyond the understanding of material realm as it surpasses any form of selfish love or lust that is visible in the material world. The reciprocal love between Radha (the supreme lover) and Krishna (God as the Supremely Loved) is the subject of many poetic compositions in India such as the Gita Govinda and Hari Bhakti Shuddhodhaya.

In the Bhakti tradition within Hinduism, it is believed that execution of devotional service to God leads to the development of Love for God (taiche bhakti-phale krsne prema upajaya), and as love for God increases in the heart, the more one becomes free from material contamination (krishna-prema asvada haile, bhava nasa paya). Being perfectly in love with God or Krishna makes one perfectly free from material contamination. and this is the ultimate way of salvation or liberation. In this tradition, salvation or liberation is considered inferior to love, and just an incidental by-product. Being absorbed in Love for God is considered to be the perfection of life.[55]

Political views

Free love

Main article: Free love

The term free love has been used[56] to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage. The Free Love movement’s initial goal was to separate the state from sexual matters such as marriage, birth control, and adultery. It claimed that such issues were the concern of the people involved, and no one else.[57]

Many people in the early 19th century believed that marriage was an important aspect of life to “fulfill earthly human happiness.” Middle-class Americans wanted the home to be a place of stability in an uncertain world. This mentality created a vision of strongly defined gender roles, which provoked the advancement of the free love movement as a contrast.[58]

The term “sex radical” is also used interchangeably with the term “free lover”, and was the preferred term by advocates because of the negative connotations of “free love”.[citation needed] By whatever name, advocates had two strong beliefs: opposition to the idea of forceful sexual activity in a relationship and advocacy for a woman to use her body in any way that she pleases.[59] These are also beliefs of Feminism.[60]

Philosophical views

Main article: Philosophy of love

Graffiti in East Timor

The philosophy of love is a field of social philosophy and ethics that attempts to explain the nature of love.[61] The philosophical investigation of love includes the tasks of distinguishing between the various kinds of personal love, asking if and how love is or can be justified, asking what the value of love is, and what impact love has on the autonomy of both the lover and the beloved.[60]

Many different theories attempt to explain the nature and function of love. Explaining love to a hypothetical person who had not himself or herself experienced love or being loved would be very difficult because to such a person love would appear to be quite strange if not outright irrational behavior. Among the prevailing types of theories that attempt to account for the existence of love are: psychological theories, the vast majority of which consider love to be very healthy behavior; evolutionary theories which hold that love is part of the process of natural selection; spiritual theories which may, for instance consider love to be a gift from a god; and theories that consider love to be an unexplainable mystery, very much like a mystical experience.

There were many attempts to find the equation of love. One such attempt was by Christian Rudder, a mathematician and co-founder of online dating website OKCupid, one of the largest online dating sites. The mathematical approach was through the collection of large data from the dating site. Another interesting equation of love is found by in the philosophical blog ‘In the Quest of Truth’.[62] Love is defined as a measure of selfless give and take, and the author attempted to draw a graph that shows the equation of love. Aggregately, dating resources indicate a nascent line of variables effectively synchronising couples in naturally determined yearning.

See also

  • Love at first sight
  • Polyamory
  • Romance (love)


  • ^ “Definition of Love in English”. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved May 1, 2018. 
  • ^ “Definition of “Love” – English Dictionary”. Cambridge English Dictionary. Retrieved May 1, 2018. 
  • ^ Oxford Illustrated American Dictionary (1998) + Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary (2000)
  • ^ “Love – Definition of love by Merriam-Webster”. 
  • ^ Fromm, Erich; The Art of Loving, Harper Perennial (1956), Original English Version, ISBN 978-0-06-095828-2
  • ^ Liddell and Scott: φιλία
  • ^ Mascaró, Juan (2003). The Bhagavad Gita. Penguin Classics. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-044918-3.  (J. Mascaró, translator)
  • ^ “Article On Love”. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  • ^ Helen Fisher. Why We Love: the nature and chemistry of romantic love. 2004.
  • ^ Anders Nygren, Agape and Eros.
  • ^ Kay, Paul; Kempton, Willett (March 1984). “What is the Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis?”. American Anthropologist. New Series. 86 (1): 65–79. doi:10.1525/aa.1984.86.1.02a00050. 
  • ^ “Ancient Love Poetry”. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. 
  • ^ a b “St. Thomas Aquinas, STh I-II, 26, 4, corp. art”. Retrieved 30 October 2010. 
  • ^ Love. PediaPress. 
  • ^ Leibniz, Gottfried. “Confessio philosophi”. Wikisource edition. Retrieved 25 March 2009. 
  • ^ Baba, Meher (1995). Discourses. Myrtle Beach: Sheriar Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-1880619094.
  • ^ What is love?. In The Book of Real Answers to Everything! Griffith, J. 2011. ISBN 9781741290073.
  • ^ a b c d e Fromm, Erich; The Art of Loving, Harper Perennial (5 September 2000), Original English Version, ISBN 978-0-06-095828-2
  • ^ DiscoveryHealth. “Paraphilia”. Archived from the original on 12 December 2007. Retrieved 16 December 2007. 
  • ^ a b Lewis, Thomas; Amini, F.; Lannon, R. (2000). A General Theory of Love. Random House. ISBN 0-375-70922-3. 
  • ^ a b “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011.  Defining the Brain Systems of Lust, Romantic Attraction, and Attachment by Fisher et. al
  • ^ a b Winston, Robert (2004). Human. Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-03-093780-9. 
  • ^ Emanuele, E.; Polliti, P.; Bianchi, M.; Minoretti, P.; Bertona, M.; Geroldi, D. (2005). “Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love”. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 31 (3): 288–94. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2005.09.002. PMID 16289361. 
  • ^ Sternberg, R. J. (1986). “A triangular theory of love”. Psychological Review. 93 (2): 119–135. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.93.2. 
  • ^ Rubin, Zick (1970). of romantic love-Z Rubin.pdf “Measurement of Romantic Love” Check |url= value (help) (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 16 (2): 265–27[clarification needed]. doi:10.1037/h0029841. PMID 5479131. [permanent dead link]
  • ^ Rubin, Zick (1973). Liking and Loving: an invitation to social psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 
  • ^ Berscheid, Ellen; Walster, Elaine H. (1969). Interpersonal Attraction. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. ISBN 0-201-00560-3. CCCN 69-17443. 
  • ^ Peck, Scott (1978). The Road Less Traveled. Simon & Schuster. p. 169. ISBN 0-671-25067-1. 
  • ^ Loye, David S. (2000). Darwin’s Lost Theory of Love: A Healing Vision for the 21st Century. iUniverse. p. 332. ISBN 0595001319. 
  • ^ The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, edited by David M. Buss, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005. Chapter 14, Commitment, Love, and Mate Retention by Lorne Campbell and Bruce J. Ellis.
  • ^ C. S. Lewis, The Four Loves, 1960.
  • ^ Kristeller, Paul Oskar (1980). Renaissance Thought and the Arts: Collected Essays. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02010-8. 
  • ^ Stendhal, in his book On Love (“De l’amour”; Paris, 1822), distinguished carnal love, passionate love, a kind of uncommitted love that he called “taste-love”, and love of vanity. Denis de Rougemont in his book Love in the Western World traced the story of passionate love (l’amour-passion) from its courtly to its romantic forms. Benjamin Péret, in the introduction to his Anthology of Sublime Love (Paris, 1956), further identified “sublime love”, a state of realized idealisation perhaps equatable with the romantic form of passionate love.
  • ^ a b c d Anders Theodor Samuel Nygren, Eros and Agape (first published in Swedish, 1930-1936).
  • ^ “Philosophy of Love | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy”. Retrieved 24 August 2017. 
  • ^ Thomas Köves-Zulauf, Reden und Schweigen, Munich, 1972.
  • ^ JFK Miller, “Why the Chinese Don’t Say I Love You Archived 24 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.”
  • ^ a b c d e Ryang, Sonia (2006). Love in Modern Japan: Its Estrangement from Self, Sex and Society. Routledge. pp. 13–14. 
  • ^ a b c d Abe, Namiko. “Japanese Words for “Love”: The Difference between “Ai” and “Koi””. Retrieved 5 November 2014. 
  • ^ Monier Williams, काम, kāma Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary, pp 271, see 3rd column
  • ^ James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 1, Rosen Publishing, New York, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pp 340
  • ^ See:
    • Kate Morris (2011), The Illustrated Dictionary of History, ISBN 978-8189093372, pp 124;
    • Robert E. Van Voorst, RELG: World, Wadsworth, ISBN 978-1-111-72620-1, pp 78
  • ^ R. Prasad (2008), History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, Volume 12, Part 1, ISBN 978-8180695445, pp 249-270
  • ^ Rig Veda Book 10 Hymn 129 Verse 4
  • ^ Ralph Griffith (Translator, 1895), The Hymns of the Rig veda, Book X, Hymn CXXIX, Verse 4, pp 575
  • ^ Mohammad Najib ur Rehman, Hazrat Sakhi Sultan. Day of Alast-The start of creation. Sultan ul Faqr Publications Regd. ISBN 9789699795084. 
  • ^ a b Pope Benedict XVI. “papal encyclical, Deus Caritas Est”. 
  • ^ Description of Sacred and Profane Love
  • ^ Woo, B. Hoon (2013). “Augustine’s Hermeneutics and Homiletics in De doctrina christiana”. Journal of Christian Philosophy. 17: 97–117. 
  • ^ “Sri Lanka – Philippines: Meeting with the young people in the sports field of Santo Tomas University (Manila, 18 January 2015) – Francis”. 
  • ^ Nidoy, Raul. “The key to love according to Pope Francis”. 
  • ^ Swartley, Willard M. (1992). The Love of Enemy and Nonretaliation in the New Testament, Studies in peace and scripture; (As Scapulam I) cited by Hans Haas, Idee und Ideal de Feindesliebe in der ausserchristlichen Welt (Leipzig: University of Leipzig, 1927). Westminster John Knox Press. p. 24. ISBN 9780664253547. 
  • ^ “Bahá’í Reference Library – Paris Talks, Pages 179-181”. 
  • ^ Gour Govinda Swami. “Wonderful Characteristic of Krishna Prema, Gour Govinda Swami”. 
  • ^ A C Bhaktivedanta Swami. “Being Perfectly in Love”. 
  • ^ The Handbook Archived 13 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine. of the Oneida Community claims to have coined the term around 1850, and laments that its use was appropriated by socialists to attack marriage, an institution that they felt protected women and children from abandonment
  • ^ McElroy, Wendy. “The Free Love Movement and Radical Individualism.” Libertarian Enterprise .19 (1996): 1.
  • ^ Spurlock, John C. Free Love Marriage and Middle-Class Radicalism in America. New York, NY: New York UP, 1988.
  • ^ Passet, Joanne E. Sex Radicals and the Quest for Women’s Equality. Chicago, IL: U of Illinois P, 2003.
  • ^ a b Laurie, Timothy; Stark, Hannah (2017), “Love’s Lessons: Intimacy, Pedagogy and Political Community”, Angelaki: Journal of the Theoretical Humanities, 22 (4): 69–79, doi:10.1080/0969725x.2017.1406048 
  • ^ Soren Kierkegaard. Works of Love.
  • ^ “In the Quest of Truth”. The Equation of Love. 
  • Sources

    • Chadwick, Henry (1998). Saint Augustine Confessions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-283372-3. 
    • Fisher, Helen. Why We Love: the Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love. ISBN 0-8050-6913-5. 
    • Giles, James (1994). “A theory of love and sexual desire”. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour. 24 (4): 339–357. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5914.1994.tb00259.x. 
    • Kierkegaard, Søren (2009). Works of Love. New York City: Harper Perennial Modern Classics. ISBN 978-0-06-171327-9. 
    • Oord, Thomas Jay (2010). Defining Love: A Philosophical, Scientific, and Theological Engagement. Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos. ISBN 978-1-58743257-6. 
    • Singer, Irving (1966). The Nature of Love. (in three volumes) (v.1 reprinted and later volumes from The University of Chicago Press, 1984 ed.). Random House. ISBN 0-226-76094-4. 
    • Sternberg, R.J. (1986). “A triangular theory of love”. Psychological Review. 93 (2): 119–135. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.93.2.119. 
    • Sternberg, R.J. (1987). “Liking versus loving: A comparative evaluation of theories”. Psychological Bulletin. 102 (3): 331–345. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.102.3.331. 
    • Tennov, Dorothy (1979). Love and Limerence: the Experience of Being in Love. New York: Stein and Day. ISBN 0-8128-6134-5. 
    • Wood Samuel E., Ellen Wood and Denise Boyd (2005). The World of Psychology (5th ed.). Pearson Education. pp. 402–403. ISBN 0-205-35868-3. 

    Further reading

    • Bayer, A, ed. (2008). Art and love in Renaissance Italy. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

    External links

    Find more aboutLoveat Wikipedia’s sister projects

    • Definitions from Wiktionary
    • Media from Wikimedia Commons
    • Quotations from Wikiquote
    • Texts from Wikisource
    • Learning resources from Wikiversity
    • Data from Wikidata
    • History of Love, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
    • Friendship at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
    • Philanthropy at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
    • Romance at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

    I Love

    “I Love” is a song written and recorded by American country music artist Tom T. Hall. It was released in October 1973 as the only single from the album, For the People in the Last Hard Town. The song would be Hall’s most successful single and was his fourth number one on the US country singles chart. The single spent two weeks at the top and a total of 15 weeks on the chart.[1] “I Love” was Hall’s only entry on the Top 40 peaking at number 12.[2]


    • 1 Covers and alternate versions
    • 2 Soundtrack appearances
    • 3 Chart performance
      • 3.1 Weekly charts
      • 3.2 Year-end charts
    • 4 References
    • 5 External links

    Covers and alternate versions[edit]

    • Addressing potential censorship issues, an alternate version of Hall’s recording replaced the lyrics “bourbon in a glass and grass” with “old TV shows and snow”.
    • In 1975, the Shaggs recorded a cover of “I Love” which was intended for their never-finished second album. It was eventually released on the 1982 compilation album, Shaggs’ Own Thing.
    • “I Like”, a parody version by Heathen Dan, was released on the 1983 compilation album The Rhino Brothers Present the World’s Worst Records.
    • “I Love” was used, with altered lyrics, in a popular 2003 TV commercial for Coors Light, which prominently featured the Klimaszewski Twins.[3]
    • The band Low recorded a cover of “I Love” as a wedding present for two of their friends (Along with a falling-apart cover of Journey’s “Open Arms”); Both covers were eventually released on Low’s compilation box set, A Lifetime Of Temporary Relief.

    Soundtrack appearances[edit]

    The song was used in the film For No Good Reason.

    Chart performance[edit]

    Year-end charts[edit]


  • ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). The Billboard Book Of Top 40 Country Hits: 1944-2006, Second edition. Record Research. p. 149. 
  • ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). The Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits: Eighth Edition. Record Research. p. 272. 
  • ^ THE WAY WE LIVE NOW: 1-26-03: PROCESS; How to Write a Catchy Beer Ad, Chris Ballard, The New York Times
  • ^ “Go-Set Australian charts – 18 May 1974”. 
  • ^
  • ^ “Tom T. Hall Chart History (Hot Country Songs)”. Billboard.
  • ^ Joel Whitburn’s Top Pop Singles 1955–1990, ISBN 0-89820-089-X
  • ^ “Tom T. Hall Chart History (Adult Contemporary)”. Billboard.
  • ^
  • ^
  • External links[edit]

    • Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

    Review: A Long-Awaited New Opera Is a Raucous Beauty

    Review: A Long-Awaited New Opera Is a Raucous Beauty

    A brutal fable of royal hubris, George Benjamin and Martin Crimp’s “Lessons in Love and Violence” is a worthy follow-up to their “Written on Skin.”

    Review: In ‘Love After Love,’ an Unflinching Look at Extended Grief

    Russ Harbaugh’s debut feature delivers something rarely seen in American movies: a warts-and-all examination of extended grief.

    Holiday Windows, a (Sort of) Love Story

    Why are we all so bedazzled by the store vitrines of the season?

    Love Is

    Love Is may refer to:

    • Love Is…, a comic strip
    • Love Is (record label), a Thai record label
    • Love is… (television film), a Filipino television film headlined by Alden Richards and Maine Mendoza


    • Love Is (The Animals album), 1968
    • Love Is… (Jennylyn Mercado album), 2010
    • Love Is (Kevin Sharp album), 1998
    • Love Is (Kim Wilde album), 1992
    • Love Is (Ruben Studdard album), 2009
    • Love Is… (Sachi Tainaka album), 2008
    • Love Is… (Toni Gonzaga album), 2008
    • Love Is (Michi EP), 2010
    • Love Is…, a 2000 album by Sammi Cheng


    • “Love Is…” (song), a 1994 song by King Missile
    • “Love Is…”, a song by The Beautiful South from Welcome to the Beautiful South (1989)
    • “Love Is” (Vanessa Williams and Brian McKnight song), 1993
    • “Love Is” (Vikki Watson song), 1985
    • “Love Is” (Alannah Myles song), a 1989 song by Alannah Myles from Alannah Myles
    • “Love Is”, a song by the Backstreet Boys from Never Gone
    • “Love Is”, a song by Design from Tomorrow Is So Far Away (1971)
    • “Love Is”, a song by Katrina Elam
    • “Love Is”, a song by R. Kelly, featuring K. Michelle, from Love Letter (2010)
    • “Love Is”, a song by R. Kelly from Write Me Back (2012)
    • “Love Is”, a song by Ringo Starr from Liverpool 8
    • “Love Is” (McGarrigle song), a song by Kate & Anna McGarrigle from Heartbeats Accelerating (1990)
    • “Love is,” a song by Stevie Nicks from Trouble in Shangri-La (2001)

    Modern Love Podcast: Willem Dafoe Reads ‘Missing a Father I Hardly Knew’

    Modern Love Podcast: Willem Dafoe Reads ‘Missing a Father I Hardly Knew’

    This week, the “Florida Project” actor reads an essay about a parent’s largely private life.

    Two Novels on the Complexities of Revisiting Past Loves

    Leah Stewart’s third book reunites struggling Hollywood stars, and Stephen McCauley makes the case that you really can be friends with an ex.

    After Scandal and Divorce, Jenny Sanford Learns She Can Love Again

    South Carolina’s former first lady wasn’t looking to remarry after her high-profile divorce, until her sister played matchmaker.

    Canines of Love

    For the song, see Hounds of Love (song). For the film, see Hounds of Love (film).

    Singles from Hounds of Love

  • “Running Up That Hill”
    Released: 5 August 1985
  • “Cloudbusting”
    Released: 14 October 1985
  • “Hounds of Love”
    Released: 24 February 1986
  • “The Big Sky”
    Released: 28 April 1986
  • Hounds of Love is the fifth studio album by English singer-songwriter and musician Kate Bush, released by EMI Records on 16 September 1985. It was a commercial success and marked a return to the public eye for Bush after the relatively poor sales of her previous album, 1982’s The Dreaming. The album’s lead single, “Running Up That Hill”, became one of Bush’s biggest hits. The album’s first side produced three further successful singles, “Cloudbusting”, “Hounds of Love”, and “The Big Sky”. The second side, subtitled “The Ninth Wave”, forms a conceptual suite about a person drifting alone in the sea at night.

    Hounds of Love received critical acclaim on its release and in retrospective reviews. It is considered by many fans and music critics to be Bush’s best album, and has been regularly voted one of the greatest albums of all time.[1] It was Bush’s second album to top the UK Albums Chart and her best-selling studio album,[2] having been certified double platinum for 600,000 sales in the UK,[3] and by 1998 it had sold 1.1 million copies worldwide.[4] In the US, it reached the top 40 on the Billboard 200. The album was nominated at the 1986 BRIT Awards for Best Album, where Bush was also nominated for the awards for Best Producer, Best Female Artist, and for Best Single (“Running Up That Hill”).


    • 1 Production
    • 2 Release and promotion
    • 3 Critical reception
      • 3.1 Accolades
    • 4 Track listing
    • 5 Personnel
    • 6 Charts
      • 6.1 Weekly charts
      • 6.2 Year-end charts
    • 7 Certifications
    • 8 Release history
    • 9 See also
    • 10 References
    • 11 External links


    Following the disappointing sales of Bush’s fourth album, The Dreaming, EMI was concerned about sales largely due to the long time period it took to produce the album.[which?] “I finished my last album, did the promotion, then found myself in a kind of limbo,” she later explained.[when?] “It took me four or five months to be able even to write again. It’s very difficult when you’ve been working for years, doing one album after another. You need fresh things to stimulate you. That’s why I decided to take a bit of the summer out and spend time with my boyfriend and with my family and friends, just relaxing. Not being Kate Bush the singer; just being myself.”[5] In the summer of 1983, Bush built her own 48-track studio in the barn behind her family home which she could use any time she liked.[6]

    Bush began recording demos for Hounds of Love in January 1984. Rather than re-record music, she took the demos and enhanced them during the recording sessions. After five months, she began overdubbing and mixing the album in a process that took a year. The recording sessions included use of the Fairlight CMI synthesiser, piano, traditional Irish instruments, and layered vocals. The chorale in “Hello Earth” is a segment from the traditional Georgian song “Tsintskaro,” performed by the Richard Hickox Singers.[7] The lines “It’s in the trees! It’s coming!” from the beginning of the title track are sampled from a seance scene from the 1957 British horror film Night of the Demon, spoken by actor Maurice Denham (although mouthed by Reginald Beckwith).[8]

    The album was produced as two suites – side one being “Hounds of Love” and side two a seven-track concept piece, “The Ninth Wave”. Bush described it as being “about a person who is alone in the water for the night. It’s about their past, present and future coming to keep them awake, to stop them drowning, to stop them going to sleep until the morning comes.”

    Release and promotion[edit]

    On 5 August 1985 Bush performed the new single “Running Up That Hill” on Terry Wogan’s BBC1 chat show Wogan. The single entered the UK singles chart at number 9 and ultimately peaked at number 3, becoming Bush’s second highest charting single (after her chart-topping debut single “Wuthering Heights”).

    The album launch party was held at the London Planetarium on 5 September 1985, which was the first occasion that Bush and Palmer officially appeared in public as a couple. The invited guests were treated to a playback of the entire album while watching a laser show inside the Planetarium.[9] Hounds of Love was released 16 September 1985 by EMI Records on vinyl, XDR cassette and compact disc formats. It entered the UK album chart at number one, knocking Madonna’s Like a Virgin from the top position.[2] The album marked Bush’s breakthrough into the American charts with the Top 40 hit “Running Up That Hill”. The album also yielded a set of videos, one of which was “Cloudbusting”, directed by Julian Doyle, and co-starring Donald Sutherland. The video—like the song—was inspired by the life of psychologist Wilhelm Reich.

    On 16 June 1997 a remastered version of the album was issued on CD as part of EMI’s “First Centenary” reissue series. The “EMI First Centenary” edition included six bonus tracks: 12″ mixes of “The Big Sky” and “Running Up That Hill”, and the B-sides “Under The Ivy”, “Burning Bridge”, “My Lagan Love”, and “Be Kind To My Mistakes”, the last of which was written for Nicolas Roeg’s 1986 film Castaway and plays during the opening scene.[10]

    In 2010, Audio Fidelity reissued Hounds of Love on vinyl with new remastering by Steve Hoffman.[11]

    A 10″ pink vinyl record with four songs taken from the album (“The Big Sky”, “Cloudbusting”, “Watching You Without Me” and “Jig of Life”) was released by Audio Fidelity (catalogue number AFZEP 001) on 16 April 2011 for Record Store Day 2011, limited to 1000 copies worldwide.[12]

    In the 2014 Before the Dawn concerts, Bush performed almost all of the album’s tracks live for the first time, with the exceptions of “The Big Sky” and “Mother Stands for Comfort”. “Running Up That Hill” had been already performed live in 1987 with David Gilmour of Pink Floyd at the Secret Policeman’s Third Ball.

    Critical reception[edit]

    In the UK most reviews of the album at the time of its release were overwhelmingly positive. In a five-star review Sounds called Hounds of Love “dramatic, moving and wildly, unashamedly, beautifully romantic”, before going on to state, “If I were allowed to swear, I’d say that Hounds of Love is f***ing brilliant, but me mum won’t let me”.[20] NME said, “Hounds of Love is definitely weird. It’s not an album for the suicidal or mums and dads. The violence of The Dreaming has turned into despair, confusion and fear – primarily of love, a subject that remains central to Bush’s songwriting.” The review then went on to scorn the idea that by signing to EMI Records as a teenager, Bush had allowed herself to be moulded in their corporate image, suggesting that on the contrary, it had enabled her to use the system for her own devices: “Our Kate’s a genius, the rarest solo artist this country’s ever produced. She makes sceptics dance to her tune. The company’s daughter has truly screwed the system and produced the best album of the year doing it.”[23] Melody Maker was more reserved, saying, “Here she has learned you can have control without sacrificing passion and it’s the heavyweight rhythm department aided and abetted by some overly fussy arrangements that get the better of her”. It was particularly disappointed by “The Ninth Wave” suite on the second side of the record, feeling that “she makes huge demands on her listener and the theme is too confused and the execution too laborious and stilted to carry real weight as a complete entity”.[24]

    In the USA reaction to the record was mixed. Awarding the record the title of “platter du jour” (i.e. album of the month), Spin observed that “with traces of classical, operatic, tribal and twisted pop styles, Kate creates music that observes no boundaries of musical structure or inner expression”. The review noted “while her eclecticism is welcomed and rewarded in her homeland her genius is still ignored here – a situation that is truly a shame for an artist so adventurous and naturally theatrical”, and hoped that “this album might gain her some well-deserved recognition from the American mainstream”.[25] However, Rolling Stone, in their first ever review of a Kate Bush record, was unimpressed: “The Mistress of Mysticism has woven another album that both dazzles and bores. Like the Beatles on their later albums, Bush is not concerned about having to perform the music live, and her orchestrations swell to the limits of technology. But unlike the Beatles, Bush often overdecorates her songs with exotica … There’s no arguing that Bush is extraordinarily talented, but as with Jonathan Richman, rock’s other eternal kid, her vision will seem silly to those who believe children should be seen and not heard.”[26] The New York Times characterized the album’s music as “slightly precious, calculated female art rock” and called Bush “a real master of instrumental textures,”[27] while The Independent called Hounds “a prog-pop masque of an album.”[28] Pitchfork Media gave the album a perfect score, noting that the album draws from synthpop and progressive rock whilst remaining wholly distinct from either style.[16] Spin called it an “art-pop classic.”[29]


    The album was placed at number 10 in the NME critics’ list of the best albums of 1985.[30]

    In 1998 Q magazine readers voted Hounds of Love the 48th greatest album of all time,[4] while in 2000 the same magazine placed it at number 20 in its list of the “100 Greatest British Albums Ever” and the third “Greatest Album of All-Time by a Female Artist” in 2002.[31] In 2006, Q placed the album at number 4 in its list of “40 Best Albums of the ’80s”.[32] In January 2006, NME named it the 41st best British album of all time. The 19th edition of British Hit Singles & Albums, published by Guinness in May 2006, included a list of the Top 100 albums of all time, as voted by readers of the book and NME readers, which placed Hounds of Love at number 70.[1] In 2008, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution said the album should be given consideration when listing albums released between 1978 and 1988 that have stood the test of time while remaining influential and enjoyable to this day.[33] In 2012, Slant Magazine listed the album at No. 10 on its list of “Best Albums of the 1980s”.[34] NME placed Hounds of Love 48th on their “500 Greatest Albums of All-Time” list.

    Track listing[edit]

    All tracks written by Kate Bush.

    Note The original 1985 cassette release included the 12″ single version of “Running Up That Hill” at the end of side one. The 2011 Fish People re-release contains the “Special Single Mix” version of “The Big Sky”, as opposed to the original album version.


    • Kate Bush – vocals, Fairlight CMI, piano
    • Alan Murphy – guitar on 1, 3, 8
    • Del Palmer – bass on 1, 10, handclapping on 3, backing vocals on 5, Fairlight bass on 8, Linn programming
    • Paddy Bush – violins on 10, balalaika on 1, backing vocals on 5, didjeridu on 3, harmonic vocals on 7, fujara on 12
    • Stuart Elliott – drums on tracks 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11
    • Charlie Morgan – drums on 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, handclapping on 3

    Additional musicians

    • John Williams – guitar on 12
    • Jonathan Williams – cello on 2
    • Youth – bass on 3
    • Eberhard Weber – bass on 4, 11, 12
    • Danny Thompson – double bass on 9
    • Morris Pert – percussion on 3
    • The Medici Sextet – strings on 5
    • Dave Lawson – string arrangements on 5
    • Dónal Lunny – bouzouki on 6, 11, Irish bouzouki on 10
    • John Sheahan – whistles on 6
    • Kevin McAlea – synthesiser sequences on 8, synthesiser on 12
    • Liam O’Flynn – uilleann pipes on 10, 11
    • The Richard Hickox Singers – choir on 11
    • Brian Bath – backing vocals on 5, guitar on 11
    • John Carder Bush – backing vocals on 5, narration on 10
    • Richard Hickox – vocals, choir master on 11
    • Michael Berkeley – vocal arrangements on 11


    • Del Palmer – engineer
    • Haydn Bendall – engineer
    • Brian Tench – engineer, mixing
    • Paul Hardiman – engineer
    • Nigel Walker – engineer
    • James Guthrie – engineer
    • Bill Somerville-Large – engineer at Windmill Lane Studios
    • Pearce Dunne – assistant engineer
    • Julian Mendelsohn – mixing on 2, 4
    • Chris Blair – digital remastering
    • Ian Cooper – cutting engineer
    • Photography for the sleeve was by Kate’s brother, John Carder Bush and the sleeve design was by Bill Smith Studio and Kate.


    Year-end charts[edit]


    Release history[edit]

    See also[edit]

    • Kate Bush discography
    • Kate Bush’s Awards and Nominations


  • ^ a b Roberts, David, ed. (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London, England: Guinness World Records. pp. 400–401. ISBN 978-1-904994-10-7. 
  • ^ a b Fitzgerald Morris, Peter (1997). Hounds of Love (CD booklet). Kate Bush. London, England: EMI. p. 3. 
  • ^ “British Phonographic Industry searchable website”. 
  • ^ a b “100 Greatest Albums Ever”. Q. London, England: EMAP (137): 37–68. February 1998. 
  • ^ Goodman, Clive: ‘Return of the vanishing lady’, Daily Mail 6 August 1985
  • ^ “Kate Bush”. NNDB. Retrieved 3 April 2007. 
  • ^ Berkeley, Michael (11 October 2005). “Kate Bush rules, OK?”. The Guardian. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  • ^ “It’s in the Trees”. YouTube. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  • ^ “Puppy Love”. Sounds. London, England: Spotlight Publishing: 10. 21 September 1985. 
  • ^ “Kate Bush”. IMDb. 1985. Retrieved 4 April 2007.  This tertiary source reuses information from other sources but does not name them.
  • ^ “Kate Bush: Hounds Of Love”. audiofidelity. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2011. 
  • ^ “Kate Bush – Hounds of Love Collector’s Edition”. Record Store Day. 16 April 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2011. 
  • ^ Eder, Bruce. “Hounds of Love – Kate Bush”. AllMusic. Retrieved 26 September 2015. 
  • ^ Larkin, Colin (2011). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music (5th concise ed.). Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-85712-595-8. 
  • ^ Stokes, Dermot (13 September 1985). “Hounds Of Love”. Hot Press. Archived from the original on 22 February 2010. Retrieved 26 September 2015. 
  • ^ a b Walters, Barry (12 June 2016). “Kate Bush: Hounds of Love”. Pitchfork. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  • ^ Doyle, Tom (September 1997). “Review: Kate Bush – Hounds of Love”. Q. London, England: EMAP (132): 128. 
  • ^ Considine, J. D. (2004). “Kate Bush”. In Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian. The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. Simon & Schuster. pp. 122–23. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8. 
  • ^ Heath, Chris (11–24 September 1985). “Kate Bush: Hounds of Love (EMI)”. Smash Hits: 77. 
  • ^ a b Randall, Ronnie (21 September 1985). “Lost and Hound”. Sounds. London, England: Spotlight Publishing: 34. 
  • ^ Weisbard, Eric; Marks, Craig, eds. (1995). Spin Alternative Record Guide. Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-75574-8. 
  • ^ Christgau, Robert (1 April 1986). “Christgau’s Consumer Guide”. The Village Voice. Retrieved 5 December 2011. 
  • ^ Solanas, Jane (21 September 1985). “Review: Kate Bush – Hounds of Love”. NME. London, England: IPC Media: 35. 
  • ^ Irwin, Colin (21 September 1985). “Review: Kate Bush – Hounds of Love”. Melody Maker. London, England: IPC Media: 32. 
  • ^ Matteo, Steve (January 1986). “Review: Kate Bush – Hounds of Love”. Spin. New York City, USA: Spin Media LLC. 1 (9): 27. 
  • ^ Tannenbaum, Rob (13 February 1986). “Review: Kate Bush – Hounds of Love”. Rolling Stone. New York City, USA: Wenner Media LLC (467). 
  • ^ New York Times
  • ^ The Independent
  • ^ Brodsky, Rachel. “Kate Bush’s ‘Hounds of Love’: The Dismemberment Plan, Röyksopp, and More Talk Their Top Tracks”. Spin Magazine. Retrieved 14 August 2016. 
  • ^ “Vinyl Finals”. NME. London, England: IPC Media: 60–61. 21–28 December 1985. 
  • ^ “ … Q Magazine Lists”. Retrieved 17 November 2011. 
  • ^ “40 Best Albums of the ’80s”. Q. London, England: EMAP (241). August 2006. 
  • ^ Harrison, Shane (27 August 2008). “Our expert names five albums that have best stood the test of time The Atlanta Journal-Constitution 27 August, 2008”. Archived from the original on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2011. 
  • ^ The 100 Best Albums of the 1980s | Feature | Slant Magazine
  • ^ a b Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992. St Ives, NSW: Australian Chart Book. ISBN 0-646-11917-6. 
  • ^ “ – Kate Bush – Hounds of Love” (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  • ^ “Top Albums/CDs – Volume 43, No. 13” (PHP). RPM. 1 December 1985. Retrieved 31 January 2014. 
  • ^ “ – Kate Bush – Hounds of Love” (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  • ^ “InfoDisc : Tous les Albums classés par Artiste > Choisir Un Artiste Dans la Liste : Kate Bush”. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2011. 
  • ^ “ – Kate Bush – Hounds of Love”. GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  • ^ a b Oricon Album Chart Book: Complete Edition 1970–2005. Roppongi, Tokyo: Oricon Entertainment. 2006. ISBN 4-87131-077-9. 
  • ^ “ – Kate Bush – Hounds of Love”. Hung Medien. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  • ^ “ – Kate Bush – Hounds of Love”. Hung Medien. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  • ^ “ – Kate Bush – Hounds of Love”. Hung Medien. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  • ^ “ – Kate Bush – Hounds of Love”. Hung Medien. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  • ^ “Official Albums Chart Top 100”. Official Charts Company.
  • ^ “Kate Bush Chart History (Billboard 200)”. Billboard.
  • ^ “RPM Top 100 Albums of 1985”. RPM. Retrieved 3 October 2011. 
  • ^ “Dutch charts jaaroverzichten 1985” (ASP) (in Dutch). Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  • ^ “Les Albums (CD) de 1985 par InfoDisc” (in French). Archived from the original (PHP) on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012. 
  • ^ a b “Complete UK Year-End Album Charts”. Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2011. 
  • ^ “RPM Top 100 Albums of 1986”. RPM. Retrieved 3 October 2011. 
  • ^ “Dutch charts jaaroverzichten 1986” (ASP) (in Dutch). Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  • ^ “Canadian album certifications – Kate Bush – Hounds Of Love”. Music Canada. 
  • ^ “French album certifications – Kate Bush – Hounds Of Love” (in French). Syndicat National de l’Édition Phonographique. 
  • ^ “Les Albums Or”. SNEP. Archived from the original on 18 October 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011. 
  • ^ “Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Kate Bush; ’Hounds Of Love’)” (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. 
  • ^ “Dutch album certifications – Kate Bush – Hounds Of Love” (in Dutch). Nederlandse Vereniging van Producenten en Importeurs van beeld- en geluidsdragers. 
  • ^ “British album certifications – Kate Bush – Hounds Of Love”. British Phonographic Industry.  Select albums in the Format field. Select Platinum in the Certification field. Enter Hounds Of Love in the search field and then press Enter.
  • ^ “American album certifications – Kate Bush – Hounds of Love”. Recording Industry Association of America.  If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
  • ^
  • External links[edit]

    • Hounds of Love (Adobe Flash) at Radio3Net (streamed copy where licensed)

    Love Yourself: Tear

    Y.O.U.R versions

    Physical album artwork
    Top row: Versions “Y” and “O”
    Bottom row: Versions “U” and “R”

    Singles from Love Yourself: Tear

  • “Fake Love”
    Released: May 18, 2018
  • Love Yourself 轉 ‘Tear’ (stylized as LOVE YOURSELF 轉 ‘Tear’) is the third Korean studio album (sixth overall) by South Korean boy band BTS. The album was released on May 18, 2018 by Big Hit Entertainment. It is available in four versions and contains eleven tracks, with “Fake Love” as its lead single. The concept album explores themes relating to the pains and sorrows of separation.[5] It debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200, becoming BTS’ highest-charting album in a Western market, as well as the first K-pop album to top the US albums chart and the highest-charting album by an Asian act.[6]


    • 1 Background and release
    • 2 Promotion
    • 3 Critical reception
    • 4 Commercial performance
    • 5 Track listing
    • 6 Charts
    • 7 Release history
    • 8 References
    • 9 External links

    Background and release[edit]

    Love Yourself: Tear was first announced on April 14, 2018, following the release of a nine-minute short film entitled “Euphoria: Theme of Love Yourself 起 Wonder” on April 5.[7] The video included a new single, also named “Euphoria”, recorded as a solo by member Jungkook. The song was produced by DJ Swivel, Candace Nicole Sosa, Melanie Fontana, Bang Si-hyuk, Supreme Boi, Adora, and BTS’ leader RM, and was complimented for its synth-pop style and tropical house elements.[8] Tear was designed as a follow-up to BTS’ 2017 EP Love Yourself: Her, with “Euphoria” serving to connect the two releases.[9][10]

    On May 6, the trailer for the album, featuring a new song entitled “Singularity”, was released.[11] The neo-soul solo was performed by member V, and serves as the intro track for the album.[12] “Singularity” was produced by British composer Charlie J. Perry, with lyrics also provided by RM.[13] The trailer was commended for its sensual, dream-like atmosphere, use of symbolism and contrast, and charismatic performance by V.[14][13] The song itself received compliments for its haunting tune, jazz elements and themes of desperation,[15] with V garnering praise for his rich, expressive voice and quiet, confident delivery.[16] Promotional concept photos presenting four different themes were released on May 8, for the “O” and “R” versions,[17][18] and May 10 for the “Y” and “U” versions.[19] The official track list of eleven songs was released on May 13, revealing a second collaboration with Steve Aoki, as well as a track titled “Airplane pt.2”, said to be an extension of J-Hope’s song, Airplane, from his mixtape Hope World.[20][21]

    On May 14, the first video teaser for what was revealed to be the first single, “Fake Love”, was released via BigHit’s official YouTube channel.[22] The song has been described as “an emo, hip hop genre track with a grunge rock guitar sound & groovy trap beat that creates an odd gloominess”, and lyrics that “clearly represent the theme of the album by realizing that a love that was thought to be fated was actually a lie”.[23] The Billboard Music Awards released a short, sneak peek clip from the music video on May 15, which showed part of the new choreography and teased a line from the song’s chorus, “I’m so sick of this fake love”.[24][25] BigHit released the second and final video teaser on May 16.[26] On May 18, the album was released, along with the music video for “Fake Love”.


    On May 18, 2018, two hours prior to the album’s release, a “Comeback Preview Show” was broadcast live from Los Angeles on Naver’s V LIVE broadcasting site featuring BTS discussing the new music. It garnered over 3.3 million viewers.[27] “Fake Love” made its worldwide television debut on May 20, when BTS performed it live at the 2018 Billboard Music Awards.[28]

    As was previously done for Love Yourself: Her, a special “BTS Comeback Show”, hosted by Mnet, was broadcast live worldwide on May 24, featuring performances of “Fake Love” and several B-side songs from the album. The group revealed behind the scenes images of comeback preparations and presented a special video specifically for their fans. The show was broadcast simultaneously online via Mnet Japan, YouTube, Facebook and Joox.[29][30] BTS also performed “Fake Love” on The Ellen DeGeneres Show on May 25, marking their second appearance on the program.[31][32]

    Critical reception[edit]

    Love Yourself: Tear received positive reviews from music critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from critics, the album received an average score of 74, which indicates “generally favorable reviews”.[41] Neil Z. Yeung from AllMusic gave the album four stars out of five stating that “stylish and yearning, Love Yourself: Tear is BTS at a polished and focused peak, cohesive enough to feel like it was conceived in one particular period rather than cobbled together like some of their previous releases”.[42] Blanca Méndez of Spin stated that “whereas the first installment of the series seemed uneasy and disjointed in its span of styles, Love Yourself: Tear’s genre-hopping sounds like the group is simply having a good time”.[43] Sheldon Pearce of Pitchfork wrote that the album “formula is a slick, loosely thematic album about love and loss, with a stronger focus on rapping than ever before” and that “Tear aims for cohesion and produces fun, prismatic songs in the process.”[44] Jess Lau of The 405 noted that “Love Yourself: Tear shows off each individual member’s qualities fairly and acts as a well-structured introduction to a wider global audience that is all too eager to pick out negatives”.[45] Elias Leight from Rolling Stone stated that “BTS’ Love Yourself: Tear is K-Pop with genre-hopping panache” and noted that “throughout it all, the members of BTS affect melodic sincerity, singing with intensity and melisma, rapping in tones that show their effort and strain, as if caring never went out of style”.[38]

    Crystal Tai of the South China Morning Post said, “On Love Yourself: Tear, the band also known as the Bangtan Boys, reveal that they are boys no longer, instead embracing a mature sound that is as dark as it is real”.[46] Jeff Benjamin from Fuse TV pointed out that “while the lead-up to the album release saw BTS shifting expectations for Korean-pop acts, the music itself positions them away from any dismissive boy band or pop star labels”.[47] While, Hong Dam-young of The Korea Herald revealed “BTS’ focus has always been on connecting with listeners and using its members’ own stories as leverage. And the group has not deviated from that in its new album Love Yourself: Tear” describing, “Musically, the fully packed 11-track album is admirable, as it seamlessly shifts between genres ranging from emo hip hop and Latin pop to pop ballads. Unlike the group’s previous socially conscious hip-hop works, Love Yourself: Tear is overtaken by dark tunes and complexed feelings of love” adding that, “The key factor behind the album’s explosive success doesn’t lie solely on its musical versatility and extravagance, but also in its overarching message: What truly matters is to deliver messages that can truly touch a listener’s heart”.[48]

    Alexis Petridis of The Guardian, however, gave the album a mixed review, writing that “On the plus side, they’re very good at ballads, performing them with a breathy intensity that’s genuinely affecting and powerful…” but “there is also stuff that you struggle to recall the second it finishes: in one ear and out the other it goes, leaving no recognisable trace. It’s not that it’s overly saccharine, which is the charge regularly levelled at K-pop; it’s just commonplace”. Petridis pointed out that “the phenomenon of BTS seems more interesting than the music at its centre, although Love Yourself: Tear is certainly good enough to keep the phenomenon moving smoothly”.[49]

    Commercial performance[edit]

    Between April 18 and 25, 2018, the first six days of the pre-order period for Love Yourself: Tear, IRIVER reported that the album had sold more than 1.44 million copies domestically,[50] surpassing its predecessor Love Yourself: Her as the most pre-ordered album in Korea, and making BTS the first K-pop group to have two consecutive albums exceed one million pre-orders.[51] On May 24, news media revealed updated numbers showing that pre-orders had actually crossed 1.5 million copies.[52] After its release, Love Yourself Tear sold over one million copies during its first week, around 250,000 copies more than Love Yourself: Her, with BTS becoming the first K-pop artist to achieve this on the Hanteo chart since its inception in 1993, and making them true “double million sellers” (pure, without repackage).[53]

    On May 27, 2018, the album debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200, earning 135,000 album-equivalent units (including 100,000 pure album sales), becoming BTS’ highest-charting album in the US, as well as the first K-pop album to top the US albums chart, and the highest-charting album by an Asian act.[54][55] It is also the highest sales week for both BTS and a Korean act in the United States, and the first album primarily in a non-English language to top the Billboard 200 since Il Divo with Ancora in 2006.[56]

    Track listing[edit]

    Credits adapted from the Korean Broadcasting System’s approval for public broadcasting and the liner notes of the physical album.[57][58]


    Release history[edit]


  • ^ Hicap, Jonah (April 20, 2018). “BTS’ new album Love Yourself: Tear tops Amazon’s pre-orders”. Metro. Retrieved April 21, 2018. 
  • ^ a b c d Herweck, Nate (May 18, 2018). “BTS Drop “Fake Love” Video With New Album ‘Love Yourself: Tear'”. Grammys. Retrieved May 19, 2018. 
  • ^ Leight, Elias (May 18, 2018). “Review: BTS’ ‘Love Yourself: Tear’ Is K-Pop With Genre-Hopping Panache”. Rolling Stone. Retrieved May 24, 2018. 
  • ^ a b “방탄소년단 – LOVE YOURSELF 轉 ‘TEAR’ (Y.O.U.R 4종 중 랜덤 발송)”. Synnara. Retrieved April 23, 2018. 
  • ^ “K-pop act BTS to drop 3rd studio album next month: agency”. Yonhap News Agency. April 16, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2018. 
  • ^ Lewis, Rebecca (May 27, 2018). “BTS become first K-Pop band to ever reach number one on Billboard 200”. Metro UK. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • ^ Herweck, Nate (April 17, 2018). “BTS Announce New Album ‘Love Yourself: Tear’ Out in May”. Grammys. Retrieved April 21, 2018. 
  • ^ Herman, Tamar (April 5, 2018). “BTS Tease Next Album In ‘Love Yourself’ Series With ‘Euphoria’ Theme Video”. Billboard. Retrieved April 24, 2018. 
  • ^ Samarosa, Val (April 17, 2018). “BTS Reveal New Album “Love Yourself: Tear” Will Be Released in May”. iHeartRadio. Retrieved April 21, 2018. 
  • ^ Herman, Tamar (April 16, 2018). “BTS Announce New Full-Length Album ‘Love Yourself: Tear’ To Be Released in May”. Billboard. Retrieved April 21, 2018. 
  • ^ BTS (방탄소년단) LOVE YOURSELF 轉 Tear ‘Singularity’ Comeback Trailer (Video) (in Korean). YouTube: Big Hit Entertainment. May 6, 2018. Retrieved May 6, 2018. 
  • ^ Hyeonmin, Hong (April 7, 2018). “”컴백 초읽기”…방탄소년단 뷔, 컴백 트레일러 주인공 [공식]”. 일간스포츠 (in Korean). Retrieved April 6, 2018. 
  • ^ a b Lee, Min-ki (May 7, 2018). “방탄소년단 컴백 트레일러, 뷔의 몽환적 매력” [BTS comeback trailer, dreamy charm of V]. Newsen (in Korean). Retrieved May 7, 2018. 
  • ^ Hyeonmin, Hong (April 7, 2018). “방탄소년단(BTS), 새 앨범 인트로는 뷔? ‘Singularity’ 컴백 트레일러 기습공개 ‘몽환+섹시'” [BTS, new album intro by V? ‘Singularity’ comeback trailer show off ‘dreamy + sexy’]. Hankook Ilbo (in Korean). Retrieved April 6, 2018. 
  • ^ Herman, Tamar (April 6, 2018). “BTS’ V Reveals Haunting New Song ‘Singularity’ Ahead of ‘Love Yourself: Tear’ Album Release: Watch”. Billboard. Retrieved April 6, 2018. 
  • ^ “BTS ‘Love Yourself: Tear’ Review”. Spin. May 18, 2018. Retrieved May 26, 2018. 
  • ^ Park, So Young (May 9, 2018). “[Oh!쎈 컷] 방탄소년단 is 뭔들..청청 or 흑백 新 콘셉트 포토”. Osen (in Korean). Retrieved May 13, 2018. 
  • ^ Herman, Tamar (May 8, 2018). “BTS Release ‘Love Yourself: Tear’ Album Promo Images”. Billboard. Retrieved May 13, 2018. 
  • ^ Kim, Mi Ji (May 9, 2018). “‘컴백 D-7’ 방탄소년단, 콘셉트포토 Y-U 버전 공개” [BTS ‘D-7 Comeback’, Y-U Version Concept Photo Released]. xsportsnews (in Korean). Retrieved May 13, 2018. 
  • ^ “방탄소년단, 정규 3집 트랙리스트 전격 공개..11곡 수록” [BTS unveiled the 3rd album’s tracklist.. 11 tracks]. Osen (in Korean). May 13, 2018. Retrieved May 13, 2018. 
  • ^ Iasimone, Ashley (May 13, 2018). “BTS Reveal ‘Love Yourself: Tear’ Track List”. Billboard. Retrieved May 13, 2018. 
  • ^ Herman, Tamar (May 14, 2018). “BTS Confirm ‘Fake Love’ Single With New Teaser Video: Watch”. Billboard. Retrieved May 15, 2018. 
  • ^ Jung, Da-hoon (May 14, 2018). “컴백 D-3 방탄소년단, 정규 3집 타이틀곡 ‘FAKE LOVE’ 드디어 베일 벗다” [Comeback D-3 BTS, The title track of the third full album, ‘FAKE LOVE’, is finally unveiled]. SEDaily (in Korean). Retrieved May 15, 2018. 
  • ^ Gemmill, Allie (May 16, 2018). “BTS Released a Sneak Peek of New Music Video “Fake Love” Ahead of Billboard Music Awards”. Teen Vogue. Retrieved May 17, 2018. 
  • ^ Hwang, Ji Young (May 16, 2018). “[뮤직IS] “아련한 안무” 방탄소년단, 빌보드 시상식 리허설 포착” [[Music IS] “Sleek Choreography” BTS, Billboard Awards Ceremony, Rehearsal Capture]. Daily Sports (in Korean). Retrieved May 17, 2018. 
  • ^ Herman, Tamar (May 16, 2018). “BTS Share Second ‘Fake Love’ Teaser Video: Watch”. Billboard. Retrieved May 17, 2018. 
  • ^ Kelly, Emma (May 18, 2018). “BTS explain what Love Yourself: Tear is all about in comeback preview show”. Metro. Retrieved May 18, 2018. 
  • ^ Lealos, Shawn S (April 28, 2018). “Complete list of 2018 Billboard Music Awards performers: BTS, Shawn Mendes, Dua Lipa and more”. AXS. Retrieved May 7, 2018. 
  • ^ “[공식입장] 방탄소년단, 24일 엠넷 ‘컴백쇼’ 확정..전세계 동시 생중계” [[OFFICIAL STATEMENT] BTS confirms Mnet “Comeback show” on May 24th..Live worldwide]. Osen (in Korean). May 9, 2018. Retrieved May 9, 2018. 
  • ^ Jeong, GaYoung (May 9, 2018). “방탄소년단, 24일 엠넷 ‘컴백쇼’ 확정…전세계 동시 생중계” [BTS, Confirmed May 24th ‘Comeback Show’… Simultaneous live broadcasting worldwide]. sportsworldi (in Korean). Retrieved May 9, 2018. 
  • ^ Bitran, Tara (May 1, 2018). “NSYNC, BTS, U2’s Bono and The Edge Heading to ‘Ellen'”. Variety. Retrieved May 7, 2018. 
  • ^ Kaufman, Gil (May 25, 2018). “BTS Drive the Studio Audience Crazy Performing ‘Fake Love’ & ‘Airplane Pt. 2’ on ‘Ellen’: Watch”. Billboard. Retrieved May 25, 2018. 
  • ^ “Love Yourself: Tear By BTS Reviews And Tracks”. Metacritic. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • ^ Yeung, Neil Z. “Love Yourself: Tear – BTS | Songs, Reviews, Credits”. AllMusic. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • ^ Petridis, Alex (May 18, 2018). “BTS: Love Yourself: Tear review – K-pop’s biggest band keep ploughing on”. The Guardian. Retrieved May 24, 2018. 
  • ^ “방탄소년단 (BTS) – Love Yourself 轉 ‘Tear’: Album Review”. IZM (in Korean). Retrieved May 18, 2018. 
  • ^ Pearce, Sheldon (May 24, 2018). “BTS: Love Yourself 轉 ‘Tear’, Album Review”. Pitchfork. Retrieved May 24, 2018. 
  • ^ a b Leight, Elias (May 18, 2018). “Review: BTS’ ‘Love Yourself: Tear’ Is K-Pop With Genre-Hopping Panache”. Rolling Stone. Retrieved May 24, 2018. 
  • ^ Méndez, Blanca (May 18, 2018). “BTS ‘Love Yourself:Tear’ Review”. Spin. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • ^ Lau, Jess (May 29, 2018). “Review: K-pop boy band leaders BTS remain consistent on Love Yourself: Tear Review”. The 405. Retrieved May 30, 2018. 
  • ^ “Love Yourself: Tear”. Metacritic. May 18, 2018. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • ^ Yeung, Neil. “Love Yourself: Tear – BTS | Songs, Reviews, Credits | AllMusic”. AllMusic. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • ^ Méndez, Blanca (May 18, 2018). “BTS’ Love Yourself: Tear Finds the Harmony in Genre-Hopping”. Spin. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • ^ Pearce, Sheldon (May 24, 2018). “BTS: Love Yourself 轉 ‘Tear’ Album Review | Pitchfork”. Pitchfork. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • ^ Lau, Jess (May 29, 2018). “Review: K-pop boy band leaders BTS remain consistent on Love Yourself: Tear”. The 405. Retrieved May 30, 2018. 
  • ^ Tai, Crystal (May 21, 2018). “BTS album review- K-pop giants’ sound matures and darkens on Love Yourself: Tear”. South China Morning Post. Retrieved May 27, 2018. 
  • ^ Benjamin, Jeff (May 18, 2018). “BTS Get Global, Darker With ‘Love Yourself: Tear’ Album Release”. Fuse.TV. Retrieved May 27, 2018. 
  • ^ Hong, Dam-young (May 23, 2018). “[Album review] BTS’ new album shows what truly matters”. The Korea Herald. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • ^ Petridis, Alexis (May 18, 2018). “BTS: Love Yourself: Tear review – K-pop’s biggest band keep ploughing on”. The Guardian. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • ^ Lee, Eun-jin (April 26, 2018). “방탄소년단, 새 앨범 선주문 144만장 돌파… ‘역대 최고’ 기록 갱신” [Bts Tops 1.44 Million Copies of Their New Album… ‘Best in History’]. TenAsia (in Korean). Retrieved April 26, 2018. 
  • ^ “방탄소년단, 새 앨범 선주문 144만장 돌파..더블 밀리언셀러” [BTS, 1.44 Million Copies of New Album Pre-Ordered.. Double Million Seller]. Osen (in Korean). April 26, 2018. Retrieved April 26, 2018. 
  • ^ Yu, Byung-cheol (May 25, 2018). “‘독보적 음반킹’ 방탄소년단, LOVE YOURSELF 轉 ‘Tear’ 초동 100만장 돌파” [‘Unrivalled album king’ BTS, LOVE YOURSELF 轉 ‘Tear’]. Korea Economy TV (in Korean). Retrieved May 29, 2018. 
  • ^ Yu, Byung-cheol (May 24, 2018). “[단독] 방탄소년단, 새 앨범 초동 판매량으로 밀리언셀러 ‘기염'” [BTS new album LOVE YOURSELF TEAR 轉 surpass 1 million sales during the 1st week]. CBS Uncut News (in Korean). Retrieved May 29, 2018. 
  • ^ McIntyre, Hugh (May 27, 2018). “BTS Debut New Album ‘Love Yourself: Tear’ At No.1, Becoming The First K-Pop Act To Do So”. Forbes. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • ^ Leight, Elias (May 27, 2018). “On the Charts: BTS Become First K-Pop Act To Reach Number One”. Rolling Stone. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • ^ Caulfield, Keith (May 27, 2018). “BTS Earns First No. 1 Album on Billboard 200 Chart With ‘Love Yourself: Tear'”. Billboard. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • ^ “Music Info”. Korean Broadcasting System. May 16, 2018. Retrieved May 16, 2018. 
  • ^ Love Yourself: Tear (CD booklet). BTS. South Korea: Big Hit Entertainment. 2018. 
  • ^ “ – BTS – Love Yourself %26%2336681%3B ‘Tear'”. Hung Medien. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
  • ^ “ – BTS – Love Yourself %26%2336681%3B ‘Tear'” (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  • ^ “ – BTS – Love Yourself %26%2336681%3B ‘Tear'” (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  • ^ “ – BTS – Love Yourself %26%2336681%3B ‘Tear'” (in French). Hung Medien. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  • ^ “BTS Chart History (Canadian Albums)”. Billboard. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  • ^ “Czech Albums – Top 100”. ČNS IFPI. Note: On the chart page, select 201821 on the field besides the word “Zobrazit”, and then click over the word to retrieve the correct chart data. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  • ^ “ – BTS – Love Yourself %26%2336681%3B ‘Tear'” (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
  • ^ “BTS: Love Yourself: Tear” (in Finnish). Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland. Retrieved May 27, 2018.
  • ^ “Le Top de la semaine : Top Albums – SNEP (Week 21, 2018)” (in French). Syndicat National de l’Édition Phonographique. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • ^ “ – BTS – Love Yourself 轉 ‘Tear'” (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  • ^ “Top 40 album DVD és válogatáslemez-lista – 2018. 21. hét” (in Hungarian). MAHASZ. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  • ^ “Irish Albums Chart: 25 May 2018”. Irish Recorded Music Association. Retrieved May 26, 2018. 
  • ^ “Album – Classifica settimanale WK 21 (dal 2018-05-18 al 2018-05-24)” (in Italian). Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana. Retrieved May 26, 2018. 
  • ^ “Billboard Japan Hot Albums Charts”. Billboard JAPAN (in Japanese). Retrieved May 23, 2018. 
  • ^ “NZ Top 40 Albums Chart”. Recorded Music NZ. May 28, 2018. Retrieved May 25, 2018. 
  • ^ “VG-lista – Topp 40 Album uke 21, 2018”. VG-lista. Retrieved May 25, 2018. 
  • ^ “Official Scottish Albums Chart Top 100”. Official Charts Company. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
  • ^ “SK Albums Top 100” (in Czech). International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved May 29, 2018. 
  • ^ “Gaon Album Chart – Week 20, 2018”. Gaon Chart (in Korean). Retrieved May 24, 2018. 
  • ^ “Top 100 Albumes – Semana 21: del 18.5.2018 al 24.5.2018” (in Spanish). Productores de Música de España. Retrieved May 31, 2018. 
  • ^ “Sverigetopplistan – Sveriges Officiella Topplista”. Sverigetopplistan. Retrieved May 25, 2018.  Click on “Veckans albumlista”.
  • ^ “ – BTS – Love Yourself %26%2336681%3B ‘Tear'”. Hung Medien. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  • ^ “Official Albums Chart Top 100”. Official Charts Company. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
  • ^ Caulfield, Keith (May 27, 2018). “BTS Earns First No. 1 Album on Billboard 200 Chart With ‘Love Yourself: Tear'”. Billboard. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • ^ “BTS Chart History (Independent Albums)”. Billboard. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  • ^ Caulfield, Keith (May 27, 2018). “BTS’ ‘Love Yourself: Tear’ Becomes First K-Pop Album to Hit No. 1 on Billboard 200 Chart”. Billboard. Retrieved May 28, 2018. 
  • External links[edit]

    • “Fake Love” Music Video on YouTube

    Extended plays

    • O!RUL8,2?
    • Skool Luv Affair
    • The Most Beautiful Moment in Life, Part 1
    • The Most Beautiful Moment in Life, Part 2
    • Love Yourself: 承 ‘Her’

    Compilation albums

    • The Most Beautiful Moment in Life: Young Forever

    Single albums

    • 2 Cool 4 Skool


    • “I Need U”
    • “Run”
    • “Blood Sweat & Tears”
    • “Spring Day”
    • “DNA”
    • “Mic Drop”
    • “Don’t Leave Me”
    • “Fake Love”

    Concert tours

    • 2015 BTS Live Trilogy Episode II: The Red Bullet
    • 2017 BTS Live Trilogy Episode III: The Wings Tour
    • BTS World Tour: Love Yourself

    Campaigns and projects

    • Love Myself
    • BT21

    Related topics

    • Big Hit Entertainment
    • iriver Inc
    • Kakao M
    • Pony Canyon
    • Universal Music
      • Def Jam Japan
    • RED Distribution
    • Discography
    • Awards and nominations
    • Videography
    • Tours

    Love in the Moonlight

    Love in the Moonlight (Hangul: 구르미 그린 달빛; RR: Gureumi Geurin Dalbit; lit. Moonlight Drawn by Clouds) is a South Korean television series starring Park Bo-gum and Kim Yoo-jung with Jinyoung, Chae Soo-bin and Kwak Dong-yeon. It is a coming-of-age story and youth romance set during 19th-century Joseon Dynasty based on the novel Moonlight Drawn by Clouds which was first serialized on Naver in 2013 and consequently published as a five-part series of books in 2015. It aired on KBS2 at 22:00 (KST) every Monday and Tuesday for 18 episodes from August 22, 2016, until October 18, 2016.

    A domestic and overseas hit, Moonlight achieved peak audience rating of 23.3% in South Korea and was praised for its production, performances and music.[1][2] It won Best Drama Series at the 22nd Asian Television Awards,[3] and received six nominations at the 53rd Baeksang Arts Awards where it won Popularity Awards for leads Park and Kim. The press referred to its influence as “Moonlight Syndrome” as it topped topicality, content and brand reputation charts in and beyond its run.[4][5]


    • 1 Synopsis
    • 2 Cast
      • 2.1 Main
      • 2.2 Supporting
        • 2.2.1 Royals
        • 2.2.2 Eunuchs and maids
        • 2.2.3 Kim clan
        • 2.2.4 Hong clan
        • 2.2.5 Jo clan and advisors
      • 2.3 Special appearances
    • 3 Production
    • 4 Original soundtrack
      • 4.1 Tracks
      • 4.2 Chart performance
    • 5 Press
    • 6 Reception
    • 7 Ratings
    • 8 Awards and nominations
    • 9 International broadcast
    • 10 References
    • 11 External links


    A coming of age story about Crown Prince Lee Yeong’s (Park Bo-gum) growth from a boy to revered monarch, and his unlikely relationship with eunuch Hong Ra-on (Kim Yoo-jung)



    • Park Bo-gum as Yi Yeong[6][7]
      • Jung Yun-seok as young Yeong

    He is the only son of the King and heir to the throne. Smart, bright and mischievous, he is disliked by his servants for being unpredictable. He has an affinity towards arts and music.

    • Kim Yoo-jung as Hong Ra-on[8][9]
      • Kim Ji-young as young Ra-on

    Popular and street-smart, she was raised as a boy by her mother and makes a living by disguising herself as a male relationship counselor and romance novel author under the name Sam-nom. She eventually became a eunuch of Yeong.

    • Jinyoung as Kim Yoon-sung
      • Lee Hyo-je as young Yoon-sung

    Charismatic and poised, he is a scholar born to a powerful family. He grew up alongside Yeong and used to be best friends with him.

    • Chae Soo-bin as Jo Ha-yeon

    A lady ahead of her generation, she is proud, worldly and straightforward. As the daughter of the influential Minister of Rites, she was chosen as crown princess of Yeong.

    • Kwak Dong-yeon as Kim Byung-yeon
      • Noh Kang-min as young Byung-yeon

    A skilled swordsman and scholar, he is also the Head of the Royal Guard of the Crown Prince’s palace. Not only is he Yeong’s childhood friend, he is also his trusted confidant.



    • Kim Seung-soo as the King
    • Seo Jeong-yeon as Queen Yoon
    • Jeon Mi-seon as Lady Park Suk-ui
    • Jung Hye-sung as Princess Myeong-eun
    • Heo Jung-eun as Princess Yeong-eun

    Eunuchs and maids[edit]

    • Jang Gwang as Eunuch Han
    • Lee Jun-hyeok as Eunuch Jang
    • Jo Hee-bong as Eunuch Sung
    • Choi Dae-chul as Eunuch Ma
    • Tae Hang-ho as Do Gi
    • Oh Eui-shik as Park Seong Yeol
    • Jung Yoo-min as Wol-hee

    Kim clan[edit]

    • Cheon Ho-jin as Kim Heon, Prime Minister
    • Han Soo-yeon as Queen Kim
    • Park Chul-min as Kim Eui-gyo, Minister of Personnel
    • Bang Joong-hyun as Kim Geun-gyo, Minister of Taxation

    Hong clan[edit]

    • Jung Hae-kyun as Hong Gyeong-nae
    • Kim Yeo-jin as Kim So-sa

    Jo clan and advisors[edit]

    • Lee Dae-yeon as Jo Man-hyeong, Minister of Rites
    • Ahn Nae-sang as Jeong Yak-yong
    • Ahn Se-ha as Master Jung Deok-ho

    Special appearances[edit]

    • Kim Byung-chul as Yeong’s teacher
    • Cha Tae-hyun as a farm servant
    • Jo Yeo-jeong as a noble lady
    • Jung Yi-rang as gukbap lady
    • Lee Moon-sik as a man who castrates
    • Kim Seul-gie as a eunuch trainee


    On December 2015, KBS Media announced that they will be adapting and producing the popular novel Moonlight Drawn by Clouds written by Yoon Yi-soo.[10][11][12] Park Bo-gum joined the project in February 2016 and Kim Yoo-jung boarded in April. The first script reading was held in Yeoido, Seoul on May 26, 2016 and filming began in early June.[13]

    Park and Kim at Moonlight’s press conference, August 2016

    The drama’s first teaser, with lead actor Park dressed in dragon robe dancing to Jessy Matador’s French pop-song “Bomba” in front of Gwanghwamun, was released on July 2016 and became a viral hit.[14][15]

    In a press conference held in August 18, 2016, director Kim Sung-yoon indicated that despite the series being set in the 19th-century, the production aimed to show a more contemporary message adding: “Our focus was on creating a romance that’s pretty and charming but also sad. We’d like viewers to be able to identify with the emotions displayed. There’s no grand metaphor. Rather than unveiling a political message, we focused on telling a story that’s easy to identify with.”[16][17]

    Due to high audience ratings, KBS negotiated for the production to extend its original 18 episodes to 20. Chief producer Kang Byung-taek declined saying that the framework of the story had already been laid out and it would only yield complications with the cast and crew’s respective schedules.[18]

    Love in the Moonlight is the second collaboration between director Baek Sang-hoon, cinematographer Kim Si-hyeong and music director Gaemi after working on Descendants of the Sun (2016).[19]

    Original soundtrack[edit]

    In August 2016, OU Entertainment’s Gaemi, real name Kang Dong-yoon, joined the project as music director.[20] Jinyoung, who plays Yoon-sung, composed and produced “Misty Road” sung by Ben.[21] “My Person”, which lead actor Park finished recording in October 2016 was co-written by composer Kim Se-jin.[22] It topped Melon, Mnet, Bugs, olleh, Soribada, Genie, Naver and Monkey3 charts upon its release.[23][24]

    The two-disc soundtrack album was released on October 27, 2016 and consists of 13 tracks including a humming version of “Because I Miss You”, 13 instrumentals and three special background music created by folk-fusion band Second Moon.[25][26]

    The drama marked the comeback of acclaimed balladeers Sung Si-kyung and Baek Ji-young after two years.[27][28][29]


    Chart performance[edit]





    (L-R): Jinyoung, Kim, Park, Chae and Kwak at Moonlight’s press conference, August 2016

    The series was met with praise by critics and audiences for its production, performances and music.[1][45][46] It doubled its premiere ratings on its third episode and remained the undisputed #1 against 3 public broadcasting dramas in the same timeslot.[47][48] In addition, it became KBS’s highest-rated Monday/Tuesday drama since 2010.[1][49] It also dominated topicality, content and brand reputation charts in and beyond its run which led the media to call its popularity “Moonlight Syndrome”.[4][5] Moreover, it topped viewership ratings in the Philippines where it premiered in March 2017, dubbed in Filipino on ABS-CBN.[50][51]

    Costume designer Lee Jin-hee was also commended for her work on the production’s Joseon-era clothes. Lead actor Park’s hanbok were put on exhibit at Tokyo International Forum during his Japan fan meeting the following year.[52][53]

    Leads Kim and Park in costume at a fan-signing event for the series, October 2016

    Sales of the novel experienced a 56% increase upon the drama’s airing.[54] The overseas demand consequently led to its translation in Mandarin and plans on Japanese and Thai translations, among others.[45] Both KakaoTalk and LINE released Moonlight digital stickers and three of Raon’s outfits were made available for purchase in mobile game “I Love Nicky”.[55][56] The eternal bracelets of Yeong and Raon went on sale as official merchandise and the drama’s 336-page official photo essay book became a best-seller.[57][58] Moonlight has also been parodied in shows like Saturday Night Live Korea and The Return of Superman, among others.[59][60] In September 2016, KBS Media acquired the rights to adapt Moonlight into a musical production.[61]

    On October 19, 2016, Park, Kim, Jinyoung and Kwak held a fan-signing event, wearing their drama costumes, at the historic Gyeongbokgung Palace where scenes of the drama were filmed.[62][63] More than 5,000 fans gathered to see the cast and the event was also live-streamed on Facebook.[64] A gesture of gratitude for the drama’s success, it was a collaborative effort between KBS and the Korea Creative Content Agency.[65]

    In partnership with Viki, the series screened at University of California, Berkeley on October 2016 as a joint project of the campus’ Korea-centric organizations, KUNA and K-Popular.[66]


    • In the table above, the blue numbers represent the lowest ratings and the red numbers represent the highest
    • A 57-minute special broadcast was aired on August 29, prior to episode three, and contained condensed versions of episodes one and two.[69]
    • A 150-minute Chuseok holiday broadcast was aired on September 16 and consisted of condensed versions of episodes 1 to 8 and behind-the-scenes clips.[70]
    • An 85-minute special episode aired after the finale on October 18. It was hosted by comedians Kim Jun-hyun and Jung Yi-rang with narration by the casts. It included behind-the-scenes clips, unreleased footage and interviews.[71]
    • A 70-minute, spoiler-filled making-of entitled 150 Days of Traveling in the Moonlight was aired exclusively on KBS World in November 11, 2016.[72]

    Awards and nominations[edit]

    International broadcast[edit]

    The series aired worldwide, with English subtitles, starting August 23, 2016 every Tuesday and Wednesday at 21:50 (KST) on KBS World.[93] It also streams internationally, on DramaFever, Viki and Hulu.[94][95][96]

    • China: Mango TV[97]
    • Thailand: Channel 8[98]
    • Singapore: Viu,[99] Mediacorp Channel U
    • Malaysia: Viu, 8TV[100]
    • Hong Kong: ViuTV, Now TV
    • Vietnam: HTV2[101]
    • Taiwan: KKTV,[102] Videoland Drama[103]
    • Japan: KNTV[104]
    • Indonesia: Transvision
    • Philippines: ABS-CBN, Viu, iWanTV, Jeepney TV.[105][106][107]
    • USA (California): KTSF[108]
    • Sri Lanka: Iflix[109]
    • Paraguay: Unicanal
    • Puerto Rico: WAPA-TV


  • ^ a b c “‘Love in the Moonlight’ tops 20 percent in viewership”. Yonhap News. 2016-09-13. Retrieved 2017-01-31. 
  • ^ “(News Focus) ‘Love in the Moonlight’ shines through unexpected success”. Yonhap News. 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2017-01-31. 
  • ^ “KBS2 ‘구르미 그린 달빛’, 아시안 TV어워즈 최우수상 원문보기”. No Cut News. 
  • ^ a b “‘Love in the Moonlight’ ranks first among Korean dramas”. Manila Bulletin. 
  • ^ a b “[SC초점] ‘태후’→’구르미’로 본 성공법칙, #엔딩5분#박보검#송중기”. Sports Chosun. 
  • ^ “박보검, 하반기 기대작 ‘구르미 그린 달빛’ 남자 주인공 왕세자역 확정 (구르미 그린 달빛)”. KBS. 
  • ^ “Park Bo-geom confirmed for KBS’ ‘Moonlight Drawn by Clouds'”. Han Cinema. 
  • ^ “잘 자란 배우 김유정, 여주인공 전격 캐스팅! (구르미 그린 달빛)”. KBS. 
  • ^ “Kim Yoo-jeong confirmed to co-star with Park Bo-geom in ‘Moonlight Drawn by Clouds'”. Han Cinema. 
  • ^ “Actor Park Bo-gum to take on period drama after ‘Reply 1988′”. Korean Herald. 
  • ^ “Park Bo-geom’s next drama, ‘Moonlight Drawn by Clouds’ has been confirmed to begin on August 1st”. Han Cinema. 
  • ^ “박보검-김유정, 보유커플 베일 벗었다! (구르미 그린 달빛)”. KBS. 
  • ^ “”Moonlight Drawn By Clouds” Finalizes Main Cast And Air Date”. Joy News 24. 
  • ^ “Park Bo-gum’s Popular Bomba Video”. Sports Q. 
  • ^ “First Teaser for Love in the Moonlight”. TVCast Naver. 
  • ^ “New period drama aims for lighthearted entertainment”. Yonhap News. 
  • ^ “Park Bo-gum and Kim Yoo-jung star in new period drama series”. Korea Herald. 
  • ^ “‘구르미’ CP “2회 연장, 논의 중일 뿐 확정 NO”[공식입장]”. TVReport. 
  • ^ “‘송송커플’ 송중기·송혜교, ‘구르미’ 촬영장에 커피차 응원..”보검이 화이팅””. Sports Chosun. 
  • ^ “개미 음악감독, ‘태후’에 이어 ‘구르미’…OST 진두지휘”. OU Entertainment. 
  • ^ “진영, ‘구르미’ OST 프로듀서 참여..’안갯길’ 다음주 공개”. OU Entertainment. 
  • ^ “연기-노래 ‘두마리 토끼’ 겨누는 박보검, OST 참여”. KBS. 
  • ^ “박보검 ‘내사람’, 7개차트 1위 맹공…아이돌급 인기”. Naver. 
  • ^ “”박보검, 못하는게 뭐니” OST까지 1위…’내 사람’ 음원 차트 ‘올킬'”. Naver. 
  • ^ “구르미 그린 달빛 O.S.T – KBS 드라마 (2CD) (Love in the Moonlight OST – KBS Drama) (2CD)”. Synnara Record. Media Synnara Co., Ltd. Retrieved October 22, 2016. 
  • ^ “‘구르미’ OST 최종 트랙리스트 공개 “17일 예약 판매 시작””. Osen. 
  • ^ “[M/V] 다정하게, 안녕히 (구르미 그린 달빛 OST) – 성시경(Sung Si-kyung)”. YouTube. 
  • ^ “Baek Ji-young’s ‘Love is over’ from ‘Love in the Moonlight’ OST”. Yonhap Agency. 
  • ^ “[M/V] Love Is Over (구르미 그린 달빛 OST) (Moonlight Drawn by Clouds OST) – 백지영(Baek Z Young)”. YouTube. 
  • ^ Cumulative sales for “No Sleep”:
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 35”. Retrieved 2016-09-08. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 36”. Retrieved 2016-09-08. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 37”. Retrieved 2016-09-08. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 38”. Retrieved 2016-09-22. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 39”. Retrieved 2016-09-29. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 40”. Retrieved 2016-10-06. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 41”. Retrieved 2016-10-13. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 42”. Retrieved 2016-10-20. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 43”. Retrieved 2016-10-27. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 44”. Retrieved 2016-11-03. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 45”. Retrieved 2016-11-10. 
  • ^ Cumulative sales for “Swallowing My Heart”:
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 36”. Retrieved 2016-09-08. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 37”. Retrieved 2016-09-08. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 38”. Retrieved 2016-09-22. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 39”. Retrieved 2016-09-29. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 44”. Retrieved 2016-11-03. 
  • ^ Cumulative sales for “Moonlight Drawn By Clouds”:
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 37”. Retrieved 2016-09-08. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 38”. Retrieved 2016-09-22. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 39”. Retrieved 2016-09-29. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 40”. Retrieved 2016-10-06. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 41”. Retrieved 2016-10-13. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 42”. Retrieved 2016-10-20. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 43”. Retrieved 2016-10-27. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 44”. Retrieved 2016-11-03. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 45”. Retrieved 2016-11-10. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 46”. Retrieved 2016-11-17. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 47”. Retrieved 2016-11-24. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 48”. Retrieved 2016-12-01. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 49”. Retrieved 2016-12-08. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 50”. Retrieved 2016-12-15. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 51”. Retrieved 2016-12-22. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 52”. Retrieved 2016-12-29. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 1”. Retrieved 2017-01-05. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 2”. Retrieved 2017-01-12. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 3”. Retrieved 2017-01-19. 
  • ^ Cumulative sales for “Misty Road”:
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 38”. Retrieved 2016-09-22. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 39”. Retrieved 2016-09-29. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 40”. Retrieved 2016-10-06. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 41”. Retrieved 2016-10-13. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 42”. Retrieved 2016-10-20. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 43”. Retrieved 2016-10-27. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 44”. Retrieved 2016-11-03. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 45”. Retrieved 2016-11-10. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 46”. Retrieved 2016-11-17. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 47”. Retrieved 2016-11-24. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 48”. Retrieved 2016-12-01. 
  • ^ Cumulative sales for “Fondly, Goodbye”:
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 38”. Retrieved 2016-09-22. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 39”. Retrieved 2016-09-29. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 40”. Retrieved 2016-10-06. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 41”. Retrieved 2016-10-13. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 42”. Retrieved 2016-10-20. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 43”. Retrieved 2016-10-27. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 44”. Retrieved 2016-11-03. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 45”. Retrieved 2016-11-10. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 46”. Retrieved 2016-11-17. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 47”. Retrieved 2016-11-24. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 48”. Retrieved 2016-12-01. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 49”. Retrieved 2016-12-08. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 50”. Retrieved 2016-12-15. 
  • ^ Cumulative sales for “Melting”:
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 39”. Retrieved 2016-09-29. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 40”. Retrieved 2016-10-06. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 41”. Retrieved 2016-10-13. 
  • ^ Cumulative sales for “A Love Shining Like a Star”:
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 39”. Retrieved 2016-09-29. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 40”. Retrieved 2016-10-06. 
  • ^ Cumulative sales for “Because I Miss You, Raon ver.”:
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 40”. Retrieved 2016-10-06. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 41”. Retrieved 2016-10-13. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 42”. Retrieved 2016-10-20. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 43”. Retrieved 2016-10-27. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 44”. Retrieved 2016-11-10. 
  • ^ Cumulative sales for “Love is Over”
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 40”. Retrieved 2016-10-06. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 41”. Retrieved 2016-10-13. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 42”. Retrieved 2016-10-20. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 43”. Retrieved 2016-10-27. 
  • ^ “Gaon Download Chart – Week 41”. Retrieved 2016-10-13. 
  • ^ Cumulative sales for “My Person”:
    • “Gaon Download Chart – October 2016”. Retrieved 2016-10-20. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – November 2016”. Retrieved 2016-11-27. 
  • ^ “Gaon Download Chart – Week 43”. Retrieved 2016-10-27. 
    • “Gaon Download Chart – Week 44”. Retrieved 2016-11-03. 
  • ^ “2016년 44주차 Album Chart”. Gaon Music Chart. 
  • ^ “2016년 11월 Album Chart”. Gaon Music Chart. 
  • ^ “[베스트셀러]설민석 밀어낸 ‘구르미 그린 달빛…'”. news1. 
  • ^ a b “원작 ‘구르미’ 누적판매량 20만부 돌파, “해품달’ 이후 최고”. Sports Seoul. 
  • ^ “[‘구르미’ 열풍①] ‘영온커플’ 박보검·김유정, 해냈다”. Naver. 
  • ^ “구르미 그린 달빛 박보검 “불허한다 내 사람이다” 20% 돌파”. EKN. 
  • ^ “《구르미 그린 달빛》의 ‘사극 불패’ 필승 공식”. Sisa Press. 
  • ^ “[XP초점] ‘구르미 그린 달빛’, 시청률 20%의 ‘1석3조’ 의미”. XSports News. 
  • ^ “Lee Yeong and Ra-on’s Status Gets Complicated in “Love in the Moonlight””. ABS-CBN Social Media Newsroom. 
  • ^ “‘Love In The Moonlight’ Extends Success On Philippine TV; Park Bo Gum Responds To Fan’s Tweet”. HelloKpop. 
  • ^ “[trans x cross] “한복이 계속 현대인들과 소통하며 그 가치를 이어갔으면” – 의상감독 이진희”. Cine 21. 
  • ^ “박보검 송중기 의상감독 이진희”. Chosun. 
  • ^ “드라마 ‘구르미 그린 달빛’ 인기에 원작 도서 판매도 ‘쑥'”. Aju News. 
  • ^ “Love in the Moonlight Official Stickers”. LINE Store. 
  • ^ “‘아이러브니키 for Kakao’X’구르미 그린 달빛’ 컬래버레이션 의상 선봬”. GGem Guide. 
  • ^ “[Moonlight Syndrome] Moonlight’s Photo Essay is #1 Best-seller”. Viva100. 
  • ^ “[TV특종] “이 팔찌만 있으면….” 영온팔찌 출시”. KBS Entertainment. 
  • ^ “‘SNL8’ 신동엽, ‘구르미’ 코너서 박보검으로 변신 ‘폭소'”. Newsen. 
  • ^ “‘슈퍼맨이 돌아왔다’ 대박이, ‘구르미’ 박보검 따라잡기… 열정의 붐바스틱 댄스”. Kyeonggi. 
  • ^ “‘구르미 그린 달빛’, 뮤지컬로 제작된다”. Joy News. 
  • ^ “‘구르미 그린 달빛’ 이영♥홍라온 커플콘 출시”. AsiaE. 
  • ^ “Park Bo-gum to Celebrate Show’s Success with Public”. The Chosun Ilbo. 
  • ^ “Over 5,000 fans at Park Bo-gum fan event”. Kpop Herald. 
  • ^ “[TV특종] 박보검-김유정-진영-곽동연, 경복궁에서 팬 사인회”. KBS Media. 
  • ^ “Fans Bond Over “Moonlight Drawn By Clouds” at Viki Screening + Host Your Own Collegiate Event!”. Soompi. 
  • ^ “TNMS Daily Ratings: this links to current day-select the date from drop down menu”. TNMS Ratings (in Korean). Retrieved October 18, 2016. 
  • ^ “AGB Daily Ratings: this links to current day-select the date from drop down menu”. AGB Nielsen Media Research (in Korean). Retrieved October 18, 2016. 
  • ^ “‘구르미’, 오늘 압축판 스페셜 방송 편성..”몰입 높인다””. Naver. August 29, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2016. 
  • ^ “‘구르미 그린 달빛’ 측 “16일 추석 연휴 스페셜 방송 예정…엑기스만 담았다””. MBN. 
  • ^ “‘구르미’, 18일 최종화+별전 방송..”미공개 영상+인터뷰” [공식입장]”. OSEN. 
  • ^ “150 Days of Traveling in the Moonlight”. KBS World. 
  • ^ “[2016 APAN] 박보검·김유정·윤균상·혜리, 신인상 영광”. My Daily. 
  • ^ “APAN Star Awards”. Daum. 
  • ^ “Park Bo-gum wins Asia Star Award for “Reply” and “Moonlight””. OSEN. 
  • ^ “Park Bogum and Suzy win Best Star Awards”. OSEN. 
  • ^ “Kim Yoo-jung wins Drama Icon”. Naver. 
  • ^ “Gummy wins Best OST for “Moonlight” and “Descendants””. Star Daily News. 
  • ^ “Best OST Nominee- Gummy”. Twitter. 
  • ^ “2016 KBS Drama Awards”. KBS. 
  • ^ “KBS Daesang Nominees: Park Shin-yang, Song Hye-kyo, Song Joong-ki and Park Bo-gum”. Naver. 
  • ^ “Top Excellence Award Winners at KBS Drama Awards”. Naver. 
  • ^ “2016 KBS Drama Awards Winners”. eToday. 
  • ^ “[KBS 연기대상] ‘동네변호사 조들호’ ‘오마이금비’ 허정은 여자 아역상 수상…”감사한 분이 너무 많아요””. Naver. 
  • ^ “[2016 KBS 연기대상] 정윤석·허정은, 청소년 연기상 수상 후 귀여운 소감”. Naver. 
  • ^ Heo Jung-eun won Best Young Actress for her performances in three dramas Love in the Moonlight, My Fair Lady, and My Lawyer, Mr. Jo.
  • ^ “‘구르미’ ‘무한도전’ ‘그알’ 등, 한국PD대상 본심 진출”. PD Journal. 
  • ^ “KBS Wins 10 Awards at 50th WorldFest-Houston Int’l Film Festival”. KBS World. 2017-05-02. 
  • ^ “‘구르미’VS’도깨비’ 작품상 경쟁…’백상예술대상’ 후보 발표(종합)”. Korea Herald. 
  • ^ “[SDA2017] ‘구르미’, 한류드라마 최우수상…우수상은 ‘W’·’닥터스'”. mydaiy (in Korean). 7 September 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  • ^ “2017 코리아드라마어워즈(KDA), 최종 후보작 확정…’관심 집중'”. TopStar News. 
  • ^ “2017 Winners of Asian Television Awards”. Asian Television Awards. 
  • ^ “Love in the Moonlight (구르미 그린 달빛 Preview)”. KBS World (YouTube Channel). 
  • ^ “Moonlight Drawn by Clouds on DramaFever”. DramaFever. 
  • ^ “MDBC on Hulu”. hulu. 
  • ^ “Moonlight Drawn by Clouds”. Viki. 
  • ^ “云画的月光”. Mango TV. 
  • ^ “รักเราพระจันทร์เป็นใจ”. thaich8 (in Thai). Retrieved 2016-06-12. 
  • ^ “Love in the Moonlight”. ViuTV. 
  • ^ “8TV for Park Bo-gum’s fanmeet in Malaysia”. 8TV. Facebook. 
  • ^ “Mây họa ánh trăng phát sóng độc quyền trên Youtube HTV2”. HTV2. 
  • ^ “雲畫的月光”. KKTV. 
  • ^ “雲畫的月光”. Videoland Drama. Facebook. 
  • ^ “雲が描いた月明かり”. KNTV. 
  • ^ “WATCH: Park Bo Gum mobbed at Cebu airport”. ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs, ABS-CBN Digital Media. 
  • ^ Lastrilla, Gary Ann (23 November 2016). “ABS-CBN presents upcoming shows for 2017”. Push. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
  • ^ “Love in the Moonlight”. I Want TV. ABS-CBN, ABS-CBN Digital Media. 
  • ^ “Moonlight Drawn By Clouds”. KTSF. 
  • ^ “Love in the Moonlight on iflix”. Instagram. 
  • External links[edit]

    • Official website
    • Love in the Moonlight at KBS World
    • Love in the Moonlight on IMDb
    • Love in the Moonlight at HanCinema

    Platonic love


    • Bonding
    • Courtship
    • Dating
    • Engagement
    • Mating
    • Meet market
    • Romance
    • Singles event
    • Wedding


    • Breakup
    • Separation
    • Annulment
    • Divorce
    • Widowhood

    Emotions and feelings

    • Affinity
    • Attachment
    • Intimacy
    • Jealousy
    • Limerence
    • Love
    • Passion
    • Sexuality


    • Bride price
      • dower
      • dowry
      • service
    • Hypergamy
    • Infidelity
    • Sexual activity
    • Transgression
    • Repression


    • Child
    • Dating
    • Domestic
    • Elderly
    • Narcissistic parent
    • Power and control
    • v
    • t
    • e

    Platonic love (often lower-cased as platonic[1]) is a term used for a type of love, or close relationship that is non-sexual. It is named after Plato, though the philosopher never used the term himself. Platonic love as devised by Plato concerns rising through levels of closeness to wisdom and true beauty from carnal attraction to individual bodies to attraction to souls, and eventually, union with the truth. This is the ancient, philosophical interpretation.[2] Platonic love is often contrasted with romantic love.


    • 1 Philosophical interpretation
      • 1.1 Eros
        • 1.1.1 Eros as a god
        • 1.1.2 Virtue
      • 1.2 Ladder of Love
        • 1.2.1 Tragedy and comedy
          • Tragedy
          • Comedy
    • 2 Evolution of platonic love
      • 2.1 Seven types of love
    • 3 Modern interpretation
      • 3.1 Definition of platonic love
      • 3.2 Complications of platonic love
    • 4 See also
    • 5 Notes
    • 6 References
    • 7 External links

    Philosophical interpretation[edit]

    Platonic love is examined in Plato’s dialogue, the Symposium, which has as its topic the subject of love or Eros generally. It explains the possibilities of how the feeling of love began and how it has evolved—both sexually and non-sexually. Of particular importance is the speech of Socrates, who attributes to the prophetess Diotima an idea of platonic love as a means of ascent to contemplation of the divine. The step of this ascent is known as the “Ladder of Love”. For Diotima, and for Plato generally, the most correct use of love of human beings is to direct one’s mind to love of divinity. Socrates defines love based on separate classifications of pregnancy (to bear offspring); pregnancy of the body, pregnancy of the soul, and direct connection to Being. Pregnancy of the body results in human children. Pregnancy of the soul, the next step in the process, produces “virtue” – which is the soul (truth) translating itself into material form.[3]

    “[…] virtue for the Greeks means self-sameness […] in Plato’s terms, Being or idea.”(106) [3]


    In short, with genuine platonic love, the beautiful or lovely other person inspires the mind and the soul and directs one’s attention to spiritual things. Pausanias, in Plato’s Symposium (181b–182a), explained two types of love or Eros—Vulgar Eros or earthly love and Divine Eros or divine love. Vulgar Eros is nothing but mere material attraction towards a beautiful body for physical pleasure and reproduction. Divine Eros begins the journey from physical attraction, i.e. attraction towards beautiful form or body but transcends gradually to love for Supreme Beauty. This concept of Divine Eros is later transformed into the term platonic love. Vulgar Eros and Divine Eros are both connected and part of the same continuous process of pursuing totality of being itself,[4] with the purpose of mending human nature, eventually reaching a point of unity where there is no longer an aspiration to change.[5]

    “Eros is […] a moment of transcendence […] in so far as the other can never be possessed without being annihilated in its status as the other, at which point both desire and transcendence would cease […] (84) [5]

    Eros as a god[edit]

    In the Symposium, Eros is discussed as a Greek god – more specifically, the king of the gods, with each guest of the party giving a eulogy in praise of Eros.[4] This view of Eros is different from how a modern person would interpret it. Most modern people would think of Eros as a concept rather than a god. This is an example of cultural relativity, because the modern interpretation of the term is different from the ancient Greek interpretation.

    “So this is how I assert that Eros is the oldest, most honorable, and most competent of the gods with regard to the acquisition of virtue and happiness by human beings both when living and dead.”[4] (180c, 8) – Plato’s quoting of Phaedrus’ eulogy on Eros


    Virtue, according to Greek philosophy, is the concept of how closely reality and material form equates with the ideal, true essence of an idea, such as beauty. Virtue is the result of pregnancy of the soul.[3] This definition varies considerably from the modern English interpretation of the term, where virtue equates to that which is good, positive, or benevolent. This can be seen as a form of linguistic relativity.

    Some modern authors perception of the terms “virtue” and “good” as they are translated into English from the Symposium are a good indicator of this misunderstanding. In the following quote, the author simplifies the idea of virtue as simply what is “good”.

    “[…] what is good is beautiful, and what is beautiful is good […]”[6]

    Ladder of Love[edit]

    The Ladder of Love is named as such because it relates each step toward Being itself as consecutive rungs of a ladder. Each step closer to the truth further distances love from beauty of the body toward love that is more focused on wisdom and the essence of beauty.[3]

    The ladder starts with carnal attraction of body for body, progressing to a love for body and soul. Eventually, in time, with consequent steps up the ladder, the idea of beauty is eventually no longer connected with a body, but entirely united with Being itself. [4]

    “[…] decent human beings must be gratified, as well as those that are not as yet decent, so that they might become more decent; and the love of the decent must be preserved.” [4] (187d, 17) – Eryximachus’ “completion” of Pausanias’ speech on Eros

    Tragedy and comedy[edit]

    Plato’s Symposium defines two extremes in the process of platonic love; the entirely carnal and the entirely ethereal. These two extremes of love are seen by the Greeks in terms of tragedy and comedy. According to Diotima in her discussion with Socrates, for anyone to achieve the final rung in the Ladder of Love, they would essentially transcend the body and rise to immortality – gaining direct access to Being. Such a form of love is impossible for a mortal to achieve.[3]

    What Plato describes as “pregnancy of the body” is entirely carnal and seeks pleasure and beauty in bodily form only. This is the type of love, that, according to Socrates, is practiced by animals.[4]

    “Now, if both these portraits of love, the tragic and the comic, are exaggerations, then we could say that the genuine portrayal of Platonic love is the one that lies between them. The love described as the one practiced by those who are pregnant according to the soul, who partake of both the realm of beings and the realm of Being, who grasp Being indirectly, through the mediation of beings, would be a love that Socrates could practice.”[3]


    Diotima considers the carnal limitation of human beings to the pregnancy of the body to be a form of tragedy, as it separates someone from the pursuit of truth. One would be forever limited to beauty of the body, never being able to access the true essence of beauty.[3]


    Diotima considers the idea of a mortal having direct access to Being to be a comic situation simply because of the impossibility of it. The offspring of true virtue would essentially lead to a mortal achieving immortality.[6]

    Evolution of platonic love[edit]

    In the Middle Ages arose a new interest in Plato, his philosophy and his view of love. This was caused by Georgios Gemistos Plethon during the Councils of Ferrara and Firenze in 1438-1439. Later in 1469, Marsilio Ficino put forward a theory of neo-platonic love in which he defines love as a personal ability of an individual which guides their soul towards cosmic processes and lofty spiritual goals and heavenly ideas (De Amore, Les Belles Lettres, 2012). The first use of the modern sense of platonic love is taken as an invention of Ficino in one of his letters.

    Though Plato’s discussions of love originally centered on relationships which were sexual between members of the same sex, scholar Todd Reeser studies how the meaning of platonic love in Plato’s original sense underwent a transformation during the Renaissance, leading to the contemporary sense of nonsexual heterosexual love.[7]

    The English term dates back to William Davenant’s The Platonic Lovers (performed in 1635); a critique of the philosophy of platonic love which was popular at Charles I’s court. It is derived from the concept in Plato’s Symposium of the love of the idea of good which lies at the root of all virtue and truth. For a brief period, Platonic love was a fashionable subject at the English royal court, especially in the circle around Queen Henrietta Maria, the wife of King Charles I. Platonic love was the theme of some of the courtly masques performed in the Caroline era—though the fashion soon waned under pressures of social and political change.

    Seven types of love[edit]

    Throughout these era’s platonic love slowly was categorized into different subsections, which were: Eros, Philia, Storge, Agape, Ludus, Pragma, Philautia. Eros is a sexual or passionate love, or a modern perspective of romantic love. Philia is the type of love that is directed towards friendship or goodwill, often is met with mutual benefits that can also can be formed by companionship, dependability, and trust. Storge is the type of love that is found between parents and children, and this is often a unilateral love. Agape is the universal love, that can consist of the love for strangers, nature, or god. Ludus is a playful and uncommitted love, this is focused for fun and sometimes as a conquest with no strings attached. Pragma is the type of love that is founded on duty and reason, and one’s longer term interests. Philautia is self-love and this can be healthy or unhealthy; which can be unhealthy if you are hubris if placed ahead of gods, and it can be healthy if its used to build self esteem and confidence. These different forms of love can be mistaken as any of the listed different loves.  There is a type of porosity that allows love to filter through one type and into the next, although for plato love is to be of the beautiful and good things. This is due to the ownership of beautiful and good things equates into happiness. All beautiful and good things sit below truth and wisdom, for everyone looks to truthful and wise people as the truly beautiful for the effort of being considered beautifully good, and this is exactly why Plato suggests that love is not a god but rather a philosopher.[8]

    Modern interpretation[edit]

    Definition of platonic love[edit]

    “Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise.”[9] “Platonic lovers function to underscore a supportive role where the friend sees her or his duty as the provision of advice, encouragement, and comfort to the other person […] and do not entail exclusivity”[10]

    Complications of platonic love[edit]

    90% of our closest relationship will be of a platonic nature,[11] but when there is an insistence on labeling the relationship as platonic love the terminology itself may create discourse within one’s relationships. Notably romantic relationships where a bond of love has been established.

    One of the complications of platonic love lies within the persistence of the use of the title itself “platonic love” versus the use of “friend”. It is the use of the word love that directs us towards a deeper relationship than the scope of a normal friendship.

    Secondly, a study by Hause and Messman states: “The most popular reasons for retaining a platonic relationship of the opposite sex (or sex of attraction) was to safeguard a relationship, followed by not attracted, network disapproval, third party, risk aversion, and time out.” This points to the fact that the title of platonic love in most cases is actually a title-holder to avoid sexual interaction between knowing and consenting friends, with mutual or singular sexual interest and/or tension existing.

    See also[edit]

    Plato and his students

    • Attraction
    • Bromance
    • Casual dating
    • Childhood sweetheart
    • Emotional affair
    • Fraternization
    • Greek love
    • Heterosociality
    • Infatuation
    • Interpersonal attraction
    • Interpersonal communication
    • Intimate relationship
    • Puppy love
    • Relationship anarchy
    • Romantic friendship
    • Soulmate
    • Womance
    • Work spouse


  • ^ “8.60: When not to capitalize”. The Chicago Manual of Style (16th [electronic] ed.). Chicago University Press. 2010. 
  • ^ Mish, F (1993). Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary: Tenth Edition. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. ISBN 08-7779-709-9. 
  • ^ a b c d e f g Rojcewicz, R. (1997). Platonic love: dasein’s urge toward being. Research in Phenomenology, 27(1), 103.
  • ^ a b c d e f Benardete, S. (1986). Plato’s Symposium. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-04275-8.
  • ^ a b Miller, P. A. (2013). Duras and platonic love: The erotics of substitution. Comparatist, 3783-104.
  • ^ a b Herrmann, F. (2013). Dynamics of vision in Plato’s thought. Helios, 40(1/2), 281-307.
  • ^ Reeser, T. (2015). Setting Plato Straight: Translating Platonic Sexuality in the Renaissance. Chicago. 
  • ^ “These Are the 7 Types of Love”. Psychology Today. Retrieved 2018-05-03. 
  • ^ “Platonic love”. ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2018-05-03. 
  • ^ Messman,, SJ (2000). “Motives to Remain Platonic, Equity, and the Use of Maintenance Strategies in Opposite-Sex Friendships”. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,. 17: 67–94 – via 10.1177/0265407500171004. 
  • ^ “The Truth About Romantic and Platonic Love”. The Odyssey Online. 2015-12-14. Retrieved 2018-05-03. 
  • References[edit]

    • Dall’Orto, Giovanni (January 1989). “‘Socratic Love’ as a Disguise for Same-Sex Love in the Italian Renaissance”. Journal of Homosexuality. 16 (1-2): 33–66. doi:10.1300/J082v16n01_03. 
    • Gerard, Kent; Hekma, Gert (1989). The Pursuit of Sodomy: Male Homosexuality in Renaissance and Enlightenment Europe. New York: Harrington Park Press. ISBN 978-0-918393-49-4. 
    • K. Sharpe, Criticism and Compliment. Cambridge, 1987, ch. 2.
    • T. Reeser, Setting Plato Straight: Translating Platonic Sexuality in the Renaissance. Chicago, 2015.
    • Burton, N., MD (2016, June 25). These Are the 7 Types of Love. Psychology Today. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
    • Messman, S. J., Hause, D. J., & Hause, K. S. (2000). “Motives to Remain Platonic, Equity, and the Use of Maintenance Strategies in Opposite-Sex Friendships.” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 17 (1), 67–94. doi:10.1177/0265407500171004
    • The Truth About Romantic and Platonic Love (2017, August 27). The Odyssey Online.
    • Platonic love (n.d.). Science Daily.
    • Mish, F. C. (Ed.). (1993). Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary: Tenth Edition. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc. ISBN 08-7779-709-9.
    • Rojcewicz, R. (1997). “Platonic love: dasein’s urge toward being.” Research in Phenomenology, 27 (1), 103.
    • Miller, P. A. (2013). “Duras and platonic love: The erotics of substitution.” Comparatist, 37 83–104.
    • Benardete, S. (1986). Plato’s Symposium. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-04275-8.
    • Herrmann, F. (2013). “Dynamics of vision in Plato’s thought.” Helios, 40 (1/2), 281–307.

    External links[edit]

    • Plato on Friendship and Eros – Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

    Allegories and metaphors

    • Atlantis
    • Ring of Gyges
    • The Cave
    • The Divided Line
    • The Sun
    • Ship of State
    • Myth of Er
    • The Chariot
    • Allegorical interpretations of Plato


    • Commentaries
    • The Academy in Athens
    • Socratic problem
    • Middle Platonism
    • Neoplatonism
      • and Christianity
    • Poitier Meets Plato
    • List of speakers in Plato’s dialogues
    • Plato’s Dream


    • Ariston of Athens (father)
    • Pyrilampes (stepfather)
    • Perictione (mother)
    • Adeimantus of Collytus (brother)
    • Glaucon (brother)
    • Potone (sister)
    • Speusippus (nephew)